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WHI.8

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Where did Islam begin?
The Arabian Peninsula.
What was the language of Islam?
Arabic
Sacred text of Islam
Quran - Which was recorded by Muhammad's followers
What is hegira?
Marks Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic?
Monotheistic
What is the holiest city of Islam?
Mecca
Name 3 holy cities
Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
Four prophets of Islam
Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad
What are the basic beliefs of Islam?
The Five Pillars of Islam
Describe the Five Pillars of Islam
1) Faith-Allah is God and Muhammad is his messenger
2) Prayer- may assemble in a mosque and must face Mecca
3) Alms- giving charity
4) Fasting - Islamic holy month of Ramadan
5) Pilgrimage- hajj to Mecca
How did Islamic culture preserve ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian learning?
By translating texts and writings into Arabic
Architectural achievement of Islam
Dome of the Rock-
1) Islamic Mosque
2) located in Jerusalem
3) Muslims believe this is where Muhammad ascended to heaven
Cultural contributions of Islam
1) Mosaics
2) Arabic alphabet
3) Calligraphy- art of beautiful handwriting
4) Universities- preserved Greek learning
Scientific contributions of Islam
1) Arabic Numerals
--adapted from India
--included zero
2) Algebra
3) Medicine
4) Increased geographic knowledge
---Islamic traders mapped new areas
Correct order of Islamic dynasties ruled after Muhammad's death
- Rightly Guided Caliphs
--Umayyad
--Abbasid
--Seljuk
Islam overcame what geographic features to expand?
--great distances
--desert environments
--mountain barriers
Areas that Islam Spread
1)Asia- Fertile Crescent, Iran(Persian Empire), Central Asia
2) Africa
3) Spain (lacated in Europe)
What helped Islam expand?
--Byzantine and Persian empire were weak
--Cultural diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and Medina
--Many people adopted the Arabic language
Two major cities that Muslims conquered
-Jerusalem
-Damascus
Name the famous battle halted the spread of Islam into Western Europe.
The Battle of Tours (located in France)
Islam was divide by what two groups?
1) Sunni- Majority of Muslims today
2) Shi'a- Believe the Islamic leader must be a descendant of Muhammad and Sunni did not
In the Islamic world slavery was not based on...
race
What geographic feature was a barrier between West African kingdoms and Muslim Empire?
The Sahara Desert
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