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Quetzalcoatl, St. Augustine, John Locke, Karl Marx


philosopher king in 12th century A.D. in Mexico, leader of the Toltec people.


artisans--lovers of the arts


colorful south american bird; represented freedom, the heavenly, the divine


a serpant; represented the earthly, the human


there is something divine in human character

Quetzalcoatl's commandments

philosophy= non violence;
1. make friends with the One who is everywhere, Lord of the intimate living
2. do not be arrogant, anxious, cowardly, but remain humble
3. be at peace with everyone; respect all non-violence
4. represent me by being calm, and let others say what they will
5. do not waste your God-given time; busy yourself with good things


God who Quetzalcoatl and his followers worshipped

Quetzalcoatl's prophecy

(left behind)
1. he is not leaving forever; we will "hear his song"
2. a day is coming when he will return, and we shall see him
3. when he returns, evil will disappear and we will walk in peace
4. the symbol of unity will manifest itself in an erected tree
5. the power of kindness will come to you and take away fear from the world
6. give devotion to Truth; the world will rise among those who understand (Truth)
7. time is growing closer; the hour is coming (we are running out of time)


southwest part of america, called by the Aztecs (first people in the Americas)-- built roads/infrastructure



St. Augustine 354-430 A.D.

North African, interested in evil and freedom... struggled with his faith early on, but eventually becomes a priest, bishop, and a saint.

St. A's conversion to Christianity

Plato's metaphysics of reality made sense to St. Augustine, which helped him in his decision to become a Christian. Visit to Rome cements his conversion


writing by St. Augustine; discussed his struggles and how he ended up believing in God

"City of God"

letter by St. Augustine that eventually became a book; he responds to the critics of Christianity; 14 years to complete.

Critics said of evil and Christianity

1. God has the will, but not the power to eliminate evil
2. God has the power, but not the will to eliminate evil
3. God neither has the power/will to eliminate evil

St. A's two "types of evil"

(neither come from God- who is all loving)
1. natural evil- disasters and diseases
2. moral evil- actions by humans

Two cities where humans live

1. City of man- world of non-believers
2. City of God- world of believers

St. A's place of reason in ethics

"reason is not enough to live a moral life; you also need faith, hope and love, to be an ethical human.

Theory of creation and others

St. A believed the "creation out of nothing" had two meanings: "nothing" as...
1. disorder/chaos; there was no design or form
2. the Will; God created this, from nothing, out of his Will

St. A's Theory of time

1. time as memory- the past
2. time as imagination- the future
3. time as sight- the now

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