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Chapter 19

STUDY
PLAY
integrity versus despair
What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
despair
Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood.
wisdom
Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.
integrity
Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____.
life review.
Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.
Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?
socioemotional selectivity theory
Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
socioemotional selectivity theory
Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?
knowledge-related.
According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:
activity theory.
As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:
selection, optimization, and compensation.
Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:
selection
The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect?
ageism.
Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of:
disrespect for older adults
Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism?
The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.
Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?
generational inequity
The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people.
9.6%
According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____.
11.5%
According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty?
60%
What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty?
50%
What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty?
50
_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone.
communicate with relatives.
Older adults use the Internet most often to:
3%
Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together").
her daughter
Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder?
ambivalence
In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____.
disease.
Social support is negatively correlated with:
Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.
Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?
collectivistic; individualistic
It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.
pessimism; optimistic
Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.
Disengagement
This theory of aging states that society disengages from older adults, and they disengage from society. It focused on increasing self-preoccupation, lessened emotional ties with others, and decreased interest in society's affairs. Research did not support this theory.
Activity
This theory of aging states that the more active and involved older adults are, the more satisfied they are with their lives. It's main point is a person continuing his/her middle adulthood roles through late adulthood
Social breakdown-reconstruction
This theory of aging states that aging is promoted by negative psychological functioning which is a product of negative societal views
Social reconstruction
According to Kuypers and Bengston, this can be attained by changing societal views and providing social support
Integrity vs despair
Erikson's eighth and final stage of development, which individuals experience in late adulthood. It involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one's life has not been well spent
Socioemotional selectivity
This theory states that older adults become more selective about their social networks. Because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction, older adults often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationship
Ageism
A prejudice against others because of their age, especially toward older adults
Selective optimization with compensation
This theory states that successful aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation
Selection
The concept that older adults have a reduced capacity and loss of functioning, which require a reduction in performance in most life domains
Optimization
This suggests that it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies
Compensation
This becomes relevant when life tasks require a level of capacity beyond the current level of the older adult's performance potential
Possible selves
What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming
Eldercare
Physical and emotional caretaking for older members of the family, whether by giving day-to-day physical assistance or by being responsible for overseeing such care
Generational inequity
The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members because older adults pile up advantages by receiving inequitably large allocations of resources
Convoy model of social relations
Individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals to whom they give and from whom they receive support
Hummert
This researcher came up with the seven stereotypes about aging: perfect grandmother, golden ager, John Wayne conservative, severely impaired, shrewd/curmudgeon, despondent, recluse
(Robert) Peck
This researcher created subchallenges to the ego integrity vs despair stage of Erikson's theory
Differentiation vs role preoccupation
Peck's subchallege which involves learning how to reconfigure one's role(s)
Body transcendence vs body preoccupation
Peck's subchallenge which involves not focusing on every little medical ailment a person has
Ego transcendence vs ego preoccupation
Peck's subchallenge which involves a person getting past how "important" he/she is
Life review
The idea of looking back, re-evaluating, interpreting, and reinterpreting one's life
Sangree
This researcher created the seven factors associated with elderly status in culture: i.e., older persons: have valuable knowledge, control key family/community resources, etc
Grandparent
According to Neugarten and Weinstein, biological reward and continuity, emotional fulfillment, and a remote role are all benefits of being a ____________