APUSH Review Terms 51-100
Terms in this set (50)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
A treaty between Spain and the US that gave Florida to the US and set a boundary between the two nations in what is now Mexico. It came within tensions of the two nations.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
First Lowell factory opened (1823)
Young women were hired to produce the goods in the factory. They worked long hours and lived in supervised dormitories. They weaved and created clothing from cotton and wool and this exemplified the new factory system in United States.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Written by John Q. Adams, this doctrine stated that Europeans could not intervene in the Western Hemisphere in exchange, the U.S. would not interfere with existing European colonies and wars. If Europe intervened, the U.S. would interpret this as dangerous to U.S. national security and take appropriate action.
Election of 1824
Controversial election where John Quincy Adams was elected president. Dubbed corrupt bargain, It was the first election where no president had a plurality with over 50% in votes. Conspired by Clay, he would use his influence to convince others in congress to vote for John Quincy Adams, in return to become secretary of state.
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Enacted by Andrew Jackson, this act forced the removal of the five civilized tribes ( Cherokee, Chicksaw, Choctaw, Muscogee- Creek, and Seminole) west of the Mississippi river
Maysville Road Veto (1830)
The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Nat Turner's Revolt (1831)
Slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55-65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the South. The US government created harsher laws against the blacks after this and barred them from education.
Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void
Jackson destroyed Bank of the United States (1833-1836)
During Jackson's term, he used his executive power to remove all federal funds from the bank and vetoed the rechartering of the bank. This was part of his bank war
Panic of 1837
Financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up after several years of american economic prosperity. This was caused by the high speculation of the era and the economic policies of Jackson to destroy the national bank.
Horace Mann began school reform in Massachusetts (1837)
After appointed to the board of education of Massachusetts, he advocated for Universal education in the United States, thus making him a favorite of the American Party and the Whig Party. He built and regulated public schools and created normal schools to train teachers
Trail of Tears (1838)
Caused by Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830, the five civilized tribes were forced into relocation in a Indian reservation in modern day Oklahoma. Several thousands Indians died along the way due to starvation, exhaustion, disease, and the cold weather
Election of 1840
Election between William H. Harrison and Martin Van Buren. William H. Harrison would become elected with most of the votes but die on his 32nd day in office due to complications from pneumonia, serving the shortest term in history.
Term Manifest Dentiny was first used (1845)
Widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent and were supported by a divine spirit (god). This ideology influenced the American acquisition of land from Mexico and the Indians and their settlement towards the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
Annexation of Texas (1845)
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits
Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Amid heightened border disputes in the newly annexed texas and Mexico, a war broke out between the United States the other nation. The short war ended in United States victory and a resurgence of American Nationalism
Wilmont Proviso (1846)
This would banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future including disputed New Mexico Territory. This would not be fully enforced
Mormons migrated to Utah (1847-1848)
After facing harsh resentment and the deaths of their leader, Joseph Smith, they migrated to modern day Salt Lake city and established a community there. They would be later annexed by the United States
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Early and influential women's rights convention, the first to be organized by women in the Western world, in Seneca Falls, New York. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and a group of quaker women set up the convention and created and signed the declaration of Sentiments, advocating women's suffrage and rights.
Mexican Cession (1848)
This cession referred to the large amount of land given to the U.S. after the Mexican War. This land included present-day Utah, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and California.
California Gold Rush (1849)
After gold was discovered in sutter's Mill in Coloma, CA, news of this attracted over 300,000 people to california, swiftly populating the territory. Thousands of people from Europe, Latin America, and China also came in search of gold.
Compromise of 1850
Series of compromises and bills that settled a four year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding slavery in the new territories. In conclustion, California is admitted undivided as a free state,
Texas trades some territorial claims for debt relief,
New Mexico and Deseret are denied statehood and become New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory with slavery left to popular sovereignty
Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
She published sentimental novel that depicts the reality of slavery and its cruelty. It helped fuel the abolitionist cause and was the best selling book in the 1800s excluding the bible. The South vilified the book.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
This act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and allowed settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether it would allow slavery in each territory. Designed by Stephen A. Douglas.
Creation of the Republican Party (1854)
It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas Nebraska Act, which threatened to extend slavery into the territories and to promote more vigorous modernization of the economy. It had almost no presence in the South, but by 1858 in the North it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state. Notable person would be Abraham Lincoln.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
After being denied freedom by his owner's wife, Dred Scot decided to sue for freedom. The court ruled that African-Americans were not citizens, and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. He subsequently lost
Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858)
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
John Brown's raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Election of 1860
This election between Lincoln, Douglas, and two other minor nominees. Lincoln would win, and the south would secede from the Union following this event.
Southern Secession (1860-1861)
Four days after Lincoln was elected into office, South Carolina legislature called for a special convention. The meeting was held in Charleston and the legislature unanimously voted to secede from the union. Seven states later met in Montgomery, Alabama. They created a government known as the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
Fort Sumter (1861)
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. The Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Homestead Act (1862)
United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land in the new mid western frontier. Any adult male citizen who was head of the household could claim 160 acres of surveyed land at a minimal cost and needed to improve the plot of land. After five years of living on the land, the government would give them the property.
Morril Land-Grant Act (1862)
United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. This act was to promote education among the United States and advocate the teaching of agricultural, liberal, and mechanic arts.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
This was issued by Abraham lincoln as the nation approached the third year of civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. This captured the hearts and minds of millions of Americans in the North and transformed the character of the war.
Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
Major battle in the civil war. It crippled the confederates for future strategic operations . It was a major turning point in the war as the confederates would be unable to win any major battles from then on.
Appomattox Court House (1865)
This is the location where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant. Lee called for a reconciliation between the two sides.
Abraham Lincoln assassinated (1865)
While attending a play at fords theater, John Wilkes Booth sneaked up behind lincolns seat and shot him in the head. Lincoln would die a day later from his injuries, becoming the first president to be assassinated.
U.S. federal government agency that aided the freed blacks in the South. It provided medical aid, education, and food to the weak and poor and insisted the freedmen to to find jobs to support themselves. Due to the Black codes and the oppressive laws passed in the South, the Freedman's Bureau could only provide minimal help.
13th Amendment (1865)
United States Constitution outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude. This was the first of three reconstruction amendments adopted following the Civil War
Purchase of Alaska (1867)
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
Radical Reconstruction began (1867)
The US government sought to fix the state and infrastructure of the South after the civil war. In addition it also sought to empower the freed slaves and enfranchise them to modern society.
Andrew Jackson impeachment trial (1868)
One of the most dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction and the first impeachment in history of a sitting United States president.Johnson was charged with the violation of the Tenure of Office Act, after removing edwin stanton of the secretary of war. Johnson was acquitted.
14th Amendment (1868)
This was one of the three amendments passed during reconstruction. The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War.
Transcontinental Railroad completed (1869)
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Standard Oil was created (1870)
Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
Knights of Labor created (1869)
First effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Wyoming gave women right to vote (1870)
The legislators pass a bill that is signed into law granting women the right to vote. This was passed to attract women to come to its empty and underpopulated territories and to bolster the strength of conservative votes in the state.
Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
Sioux warriors led by Sitting Bull, with creative military strategy defeated Colonel Custer's Seventh Calvalry. However, in a series of battles across the northern plains in the following months, the U.S. Army relentlessly hunted down the Indians who had humiliated Custer.
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