Terms in this set (34)
This is the emission of light by a substance following the absorption of EMR (light).
This is used in FA. It is highly water soluble and is metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. It is 80% bound to protein (albumin) and 80% of it is not available for fluorescence.
Sodium Fluorescein Dye
T/F. Even though there are two barrier filters (blue and yellow) the FA camera only sees the dye.
What is wrong if you take a picture without the eye and see colors in the camera?
The Barriers are not matched
What are seven possible side effects of FA?
Temporary yellowing of skin/mucous membranes (100%)
Orange-yellow discoloration of urine (100%)
Nausea and vomiting (10%)
Extravasation (dye under skin)
Allergic reaction (1%)
What are six contraindications of FA?
Pregnancy (unknown teratogenicity)
History of Severe reaction to Sodium Fluorescein
History of asthma/hay fever/prior minor reaction to sodium fluorescein
No blood work or urine analysis for 2 days following
The CRA supplies what layers of the retina?
OPL --> ILM
The choroid supplies what layers of the retina?
Photoreceptors --> OPL
Which layer receives two blood supplies?
T/F. CRA has unfenestrated vessels.
This is the blood retinal barrier between ENDOTHELIAL cells of NONFENESTRATED retinal CAPILLARIES. It prevents components from entering retinal tissue.
This is the BRB between ADJACENT RPE CELLS. SF can pass through fenestrations in choriocapillaris but cannot pass through here.
This is the first face of FA. It is represented by lobular, patchy, and mottled filling patterns of the choroid. Beings how long after injection? Complete within how long?
Being: 8-12 seconds
Complete: 5 seconds
This is the second phase of FA in which retinal arteries are not completely filled with dye. There is no dye yet in the veins. Follows choroidal by how long? Finishes in how long?
T/F. You should never see a leading edge in arterial filling phase.
This phase is slower and is characterized with railroad tracking. It takes how long? Occurs how long after first injection?
Begins 15-20 seconds post injection
Takes: 2-3 seconds
This phase is the one in which all veins are filled and appear slightly brighter than the arteries. Occurs how long post injection? Takes how long?
Begins: 20-30 seconds post injection
Takes: 1 minute
Complete venous filling usually present _____ seconds or less after initial appearance of dye in corresponding artery.
During this phase dye had drained to the heart and pumped back to the eye. It occurs how long post injection? During this phase what might be evident?
Begins: 2 1/2 minute to 7 1/2 minute
Pooling or leakage
This phase is on in which choroidal retinal fluorescence is nearly extinct, but staining/pooling/leakage can still be seen. Occurs how long post injection?
Begins: 7-10 minutes
This fluorescence (apparent hyperfluorescence) is due to poorly matched exciter and barrier filters of filter sets that have faded over time. "Ghosting, washed out"
This fluorescence is due to substances that are highly reflective and naturally fluoresce (without dye). Give an example.
Optic Head Drusen
Name two types of HYPOfluorescence
This HYPOFLUORESCENCE is due to capillary drop out. It may be either a delay in or complete absence of vascular filling. Can be in retina, choroid, or disc.
Nonperfusion (no corresponding lesion to color photograph)
This HYPOFLURESCENCE is one in which normal fluorescence of choroid or retina is covered by pigment blood exudate, vitreous, opacities, retinal edema or scar tissue. Present in all places.
What are three reasons in which there is normal retinal hypofluroescence of macula?
RPE columnar shape
This is a HYPERFLUORESCENT defect in which you can view the normal choroidal fluorescence through a defect in the RPE that does not increase in intensity or shape (angiod streaks, drusen, RPE tear, etc).
Transmission (Window Defect)
This is a HYPERFLUORESCENT defect in which there is a marked INCREASE IN SIZE, INTENSITY AND DIFFUSION over time. Usually begins in arterio transit and continues into late phase.
Leakage is caused by a break in what? (This can be caused by what two things?)
Outer and Inner BRB
Neo, increase permeability of vasculature
This HYPERFLUORESCENT defect is accumulation of dye in a fluid-filled space. Will increase in INTENSITY but remained CONFINED to one space that has been completely filled. Usually occurs from fluid accumulating under RPE or under retina.
This HYPERFLUORESCENT defect is dye entry into SOLID tissue. Intensity may INCREASE but BORDERS are FIXED. Pathological: Vascuitis/RPE/Regressed Neo/Drusen
Normal: Sclera, lamina cribosa, choroidal intersistium
What is most common cause of staining?
Inflammation or ischemia of vessel wall
T/F. Some cases such as drusen, laser scars, or choroidal folds may have combined defects.
This type of angiography is one that is 98% protein-bound with a higher molecular weight than SF. It is ideal for imaging of what? It is good because it has a lower rate of what?
Indocyanine Green Angiography