KIN 143 Final
Terms in this set (37)
Components of Training
Used to enhance power by suddenly loading the muscles, thus forcing them to lengthen before they can contract and elicit movement.
Abnormally low level of sodium in blood and associated with dehydration.
Too much fluid consumed. Causes massive overhydration and causes brain and body to swell. Can lead to heart failure and breathing problems.
conversion of protein to glucose
Agonist muscle contracts, contraction of the opposing antagonist muscles is inhibited (eg. contracting hip flexors relax)
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
The cells develop a tolerance for insulin and the hormone is no longer effective. Insulin cannot promote the transport and utilization of glucose by cells. Body weight increases.
EBE (Energy Balancing Equation)
Energy in and energy out although they do are dependent variables not independent variables. A change in energy stores = energy intake - energy expenditure. Type of food is important though and a calorie is not a calorie!
measures the body's heat production to estimate energy expenditure
the indirect measurement of energy expenditure by measurement of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide expired
Basal Metabolic Rate: amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment
-Hormone levels (estrogen)
-Fever & Climate
Set Point Theory
belief that brain mechanisms regulate body weight around a genetically predetermined 'set point'
Increased number of fat cells
Increased size in fat cells
Increased number of muscle cells
Adequate exercise load (quality and quantity)
Proper Nutrition (q and q)
Manageable Stress (q and q)
Factors governing the selection of fuels for muscular work
At rest about 2/3 of ATP production comes from fatty acids
other 1/3 from glycogen and glucose
at 95% of VO2max, carbohydrate used exclusively
15% from protein for prolonged endurance efforts
-Between 90-140mg/ 100ml
-Liver plays important role in BG levels
-Muscle cannot supply blood with glucose
-BG must be obtained from liver or food
-Once in muscle cell, glucose cannot go back out
-Lactate can be transported to liver and processed back into glucose
Disadvantages of CHO Loading
-Increase in muscle glycogen storage so increase in waater content
-High fat, high protein dietary period used in Method C is accompanied by irritability and other signs of hypoglycaemia (blood sugar too low)
-Changing diet disruptive so prone to sickness and injury
-Stored as free creatine or bound to a phosphate molecule in skeletal muscle
-Creatine supplementation can increase PCr and Cr stores by 10-40%
-Increased stores improve ability of muscles to re-synthesize ATP from ADP
-Reduces fatigue and increases O2 consumption
-heart muscle contractions
-Some atheletes eat macronutrients in varied quantities in cycles
-High protein, high fat diet increases blood serum levels of anabolic hormones, testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor
-Shift body from sugar burning to fat burning and decrease catabolic activity in body
-Increase str and endurance and decrease excessive body fat
located in hypothalamus of the brain- sensitive to the temperature of the arterial blood
Hot and cold receptors located in the skin. Relay sensory info to hypothalamus.
Located in hypothalamus (analogy: thermostat in house)
Setting of thermostat is elevated during exercise. Heat dissipation mechanisms don't being until the body core has warmed up to a level closely related to % VO2max.
Exercise in the Heat
Excessive sweating (decrease) plasma volume
(decrease) cardiac output and O2 transport to working muscle
Interference with temperature regulation
Result: (Increase) core temp. (decrease) endurance cap
(increase) cutaneous blood flow
better distr of cardiac output
lower resting body temperature
decreased exercise HRs and metabolism
A catabolic hormone (body burning energy state)
Increases blood glucose (from liver), increases levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in the blood and increases breakdown of muscle protein.
Great FFR Hormone
Also destroys healthy muscle and bone, slows down healing in normal cell regeneration, co-opts biochemicals needed to make other vital hormones, impairs digestion, etc
collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis
parasympathetic autonomic nervous system
rest and digest
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and rate of that change
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
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