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(Chapter 2) Guidelines for a Healthy Diet

Terms in this set (30)

1. Are designed to be used to plan diets and to evaluate what we are eating, both as individuals and as a nation.
2. The first dietary recommendations in the US, published in 1894 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, suggested mounts of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and "mineral matter" needed to keep Americans healthy. (Specific vitamins and minerals essential for health had not been identified at the time. In the early 1940s, the Food and Nutrition Board developed the first set of recommendations for specific amounts of nutrients. These came to be known as the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). [some were most likely to be deficient in people;s diets like protein iron, calcium, vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. The original RDAs have been expanded into the Dietary Reference Intakes, which address problems of excess as well as deficiency. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, (1980) makes the diet and lifestyle recommendations that promote health and reduce the risks of obesity and chronic disease, have been revised every 5 years. Early food guides have evolved into MyPlate, which suggests amounts and types of food from five food groups to meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines and in addition, standardized food labels have been developed to help consumers choose foods that meet these recommendations.
3. Nutrition recommendations are developed to address the nutritional concerns of the population and help individuals meet their nutrient needs. When food intake data are evaluated in conjunction with information about the health and nutritional status of individuals in the population, relationships between dietary intake and health and disease can be identified. This is important for developing public health measures that address nutritional problems. This leads public health experts to develop programs to improve both the diet and the fitness of Americans.
1. The recommendations of this 7th edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans focus on balancing calorie intake with physical activity and consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages.
2. Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide evidence-based nutritional guidance to promote health and reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the risk of chronic disease. And MyPlate can be used to plan a diet based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines. It is most recent USDA's food guide. It divides foods into five goof groups: Fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and dairy...based on the nutrients they supply most abundantly, and illustrates the appropriate proportions of foods from each food group that make up a healthy diet.
3. Based on 2000 - Calorie:
Lunch - Tuna salad sandwich: 2 sliced of whole-wheat bread; 2 ounces tuna; 1 Tbsp mayonnaise; 1 Tbsp chopped celery & 1/2 cup shredded lettuce; 1/2 large peach; beverage: 1 cup fat-free milk

Grains (2 oz): Make half your grains whole - Two slices of whole-wheat bread count as 2 ounces of whole grains so you need on more to make half of your 6 ounces whole grains.
Protein (2 oz): Choose seafood twice a week - Tuna provides one of your seafood servings for the week and 2 of your 5 1/2 ounces of protein foods for the day.
Oils (3 tsp): Avoid extra fat - One tablespoon of mayo is 3 teaspoons of oil; half your daily limit of 6 teaspoons.
Vegetables (1/4 cup): Add more vegetables to your day - One cup of leafy greens equal 1/2 cup vegetables. You need lots more veggies and more varied choices to get your 2 1/2 cups for the day.
Fruits (1/2 cup) Choose whole or cut-up fruit - This fresh peach provides more fiber than fruit juice but only a quarter of the 2 cups recommended for the day.
Dairy (1 cup) "Skim" the fat - A cup of fat-free (skim) milk provides lots of calcium in few calories and is one third of your 3 cups of the day.
4. Some empty calories come from foods that belong to a food group but contain added sugars and solid fats. Donuts, for example, are in the grains group , but about half of their calories are empty calories from solid fat and sugar. Some foods, such as butter, table sugar, soft drinks, and candy, don't belong in any food group, because all their calories are empty. Oils are healthy fats so, they are not considered empty calories. It is important to limit empty calories because consuming too many means you can't meet your nutrient needs without exceeding your calorie needs.
1. Food labels are designed to help consumers make informed food choices y providing information about the nutrient composition of a food and how that food fits into the overall diet. And knowing how to interpret the information on these labels.
2. Food should bee high in fiber and low in saturated and low in cholesterol. Because Saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol increase risk of hear disease.
3. The ingredient list presents the contents of the product in order of their prominence by wight, from the most abundant to the least abundant.
4. Nutrient Content Claims:
statements that highlight a characteristic of a food that might be of interest to consumers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established specific descriptors. Like "free", "low", "lean and extra lean", "high", "good source", "reduced", "less", "light", "more", "healthy", "fresh".

Health Claims:
Statements that refer to a relationship between a nutrient, food, food component, or dietary supplement, and reduced risk of a disease or health-related condition. Food must be a naturally-good source of 1 of 6 nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin CC, protein, calcium, iron, or fiber) and must not contain more than 20% Daily Value for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium. All claims are reviewed by the FDA.

Qualified Health Claims:
Health claims are supported by scientific evidence. Health claims for which there is emerging but not well-established evidence. Must contain a qualifying/explanatory statement.

Structure/Function Claims:
Not approved but must notify FDA. Manufacturer is responsible for ensuring accuracy and truthfulness of claims. Must state, "The FDA has not evaluated the claim"; "The product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease".