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Chapter 15 lecture final
Terms in this set (77)
A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response
Acquired specific immunity involves the response of
B and T lymphocytes
The embryonic yolk sac, the liver, and the bone marrow are sites where
stem cells give rise to immature lymphocytes
The antibody-secreting progeny cells of a B-cell clone
Helper T cells
activate B cells and other T cells
Lymphocyte maturation involves
Hormonal signals that initiate development; B cells maturing in bone marrow sites; T cells maturing in the thymus; and release of mature lymphocytes to begin migration to various lymphoid organs
What type of calls secrete antibodies
Cell surface markers involved in immune reactions
Are the result of genetic expression; function in recognition of self molecules; receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system; and aid in cellular development
The major histocompatibility complex is
a set of genes that code for MHC glycoproteins
Class II MHC genes code for
receptors located primarily on macrophages and B cells
Class I MHC genes code for
self receptors recognized by T lymphocytes
The histocompatiability complex proteins function in
recognition of self
MHC molecules are found on all of the following cells except
red blood cells
Possess MHC antigens for recognizing self; have membrane receptors that recognize foreign antigens; gain tolerance to self by destruction of lymphocytes that could react against self; and develop into clones of B and T cells with extreme variations of specificity
The monomer subunit of immunoglobulin molecules does NOT have
four antigen binding sites
The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly diversified from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the _________ region.
Mature lymphocytes populate lymphatic organs and encounter antigens
is NOT true of the antigen-independent period of lymphocyte development.
destruction of lymphocytes with self-specificity
Large polymers made up of repeating subunits
is NOT a property of an effective antigen
the molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocytes recognizes and responds to
Small foreign molecules that are too small by themselves to elicit an immune response
bacterial toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens
antigens that elicit allergic reactions
What is NOT a property of B cells
require antigen presented with MHC proteins
Antigen presenting cells
include dendritic cells, include macrophages, engulf and modify antigen to more immunogenic; and hold and present processed antigen on their cell membrane surface.
T-cell response to T-cell-dependent antigens requires
typically a protein antigen; binding of the cell to a class II MHC receptor on a macrophage; binding of the T cell to a site on the antigen; interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell
During presentation of APC-bound antigen, macrophages and dendritic cells secrete the cytokine ______, which activates T helper cells
The Fc region of an immunoglobulin does NOT
form the antigen binding sites
Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule, thereby disrupting their activity
Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates
Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis
Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen
The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum, and other body secretions
The immunoglobulin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta
The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptos on basophils and mast cells
is NOT a characteristic of IgM
Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement
IgM and IgG
The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
IgM and IgD
__________ is the most abundant class of antibodies in serum.
Each ______ fragment of an antibody molecule contains the variable regions of a heavy and light chain that folds into a groove for one epitope.
An activated TH cell produces _______, which is a growth factor for T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells.
generates many B cells and T calls that are activated against specific antigens
The most significant cells in graft rejection are
cytotoxic T cells
Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
natural killer (NK) cells
Cytotoxic T cells
secrete granzymes and perforins that damage target cells
Bacteria is not
a target for Tc cells
Specific immunity provides long-lasting protection through the production of _________.
An example of artificial passive immunity would be
giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease.
An example of natural passive immunity would be
chickenpox vaccine triggering extended immunity to chickenpox
An example of artificial active immunity would be
chickenpox vaccine triggering extended immunity to chickenpox
An example of natural active immunity would be
chickenpox infection, followed by lifelong immunity
Edward Jenner's work involved
immunization using a related, less pathogenic organism to give protection against a more pathogenic one
Immunotherapy is the
use of antitoxins; use of immune serum globulin; conferring of passive immunity; and administering of performed antibodies.
High titers of specific antibodies are characteristic of
specific immune globulin (SIG)
Killed or inactivated vaccines are prepared by
treatment with formalin, heat, or radiation
Live, attenuated vaccines
include the Sabin polio vaccine; include the measels, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); contain viable microbes that can multiply in the person; and they require smaller doses and fewer boosters compared to inactivated vaccines
Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines
contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses.
confer passive immunity
Vaccinia virus is often used in the technique to make
"Trojan horse" recombinant vaccine
A special binding substance that enhances immunogenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site.
All nucleated cells contain
class I MHC
During which response to the antigen do we display a latent period of no secretory antibody synthesis?
Antibody molecules circulate in lymph, blood, and tissue fluids.
Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
Activation of B cells occurs when antigen bind to B cell surface immunoglobulin receptors.
Clonal selection requires the presence of foreign antigens.
After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
The hinge region of an antibody has a hypervariable amino acid region where the antigenic determinant fits.
The structural and functional differences that distinguish immunoglobulin isotypes are due to variations associated with their Fc fragments.
One plasma cell will secrete antibodies of various classes, but the antibodies will all have the same specificity.
The secondary response to an antigen is more rapid and robust than the primary response.
Gamma globulin can be given as immunotherapy to confer artificial passive immunity.
The array of potential antibodies to the variety of possible antigens is amazing. Which statement explains this development?
Recombination of hundreds of genes for antigen receptors occurs during the developmental stage of lymphocyte production.
A cytotoxic T lymphocyte, having been activated against a particular viral antigen on a host body cell. What will happen?
The cytotoxic T cell will produce proteins that cause the host body cells to die
As an adult who never developed chickenpox as a child, you elect to receive the protective vaccine against this pathogen at the age of 35. This vaccine will stimulate:
A primary immune response
Autoimmune disorders are characterized by immune destruction of self tissues. The underlying basis of these disorders is:
Oversecretion of antibodies from memory B cells
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