283 terms

Windows7 Quizzes

What replaced the Quick Launch toolbar?
Pin to Taskbar
Where do you place gadgets in Windows 7?
Which feature enables you to minimize all windows except the one on which you want to focus?
Aero Shake
Which is not a library that is included with Windows 7?
What Windows 7 feature replaces the Security Center found in Windows Vista?
Action Center
In Windows 7, what is designed to replace VB Script for scripting and performing actions?
Which edition is available as a volume license only?
Which editions of Windows 7 can be added to an Active Directory Domain?
Which edition of Windows 7 supports AppLocker?
Ultimate (and Enterprise)
Which edition of Windows 7 is designed for low-end mobile devices, usually sold through OEMs?
Windows 7 Starter
What is the minimim amount of memory for a 32-bit version of Windows 7?
What is the minimum disk space to install the 64-bit version of Windows 7?
What is the minimum processor to install tthe 32-bit or 64-bit version of Windpws 7?
What is the maximum amount of memory that the 32-bit version of Windows 7 Home Basic supports?
What is the maximum amount of memory recoginized by the 64-bit version of Windows 7 Enterprise and Ultimate editions?
You need to upgrade Windows XP Professional to Windows 7 Professional while keeping user and application settings. How should you proceed?
Upgrade to Window Vista followed by upgrading to Windows 7
Which components of Windows 7 allows you to enhance performance of the system by using USB flash drives or Sd memory cards?
Ready Boost
Which keys are used to zoom out when the screen is magnified?
Windows + -
_____ is used with Windows Search to enable you to search Windows SharePoint sites, intranets, and specific Internet sites from the Windows Explorer interface?
Federated Search
____ is an extension of Wake on LAN that works with wireless networks.
Wake on Wireles LAN
_____ causes Windows 7 to render all the windows on the desktop transparent, enabling you to see any gadgets on the desktop underneath.
Aero Peek
_____ GPOs are administrative templates with preconfigured settings that administrators can use as a baseline for creating new GPOs.
What software can you use to check if your machine can be successfully upgraded to Windows 7?
Windows Upgrade Advisor
What tool can be used to migrate user settings from a computer running Windows XP to a computer running Windows 7?
What replace the MS-DOS boot disks for fixing and troubleshooting a wide range of boot problems on a Windows Vista or 7 system?
Windows PE
Which of the following is not a feature of Windows PE?
A. Internal networking support
B. Internal NTFS support
C. Boot a virtual DOS enviornment
D. Scripting language support
Where would you find a copy of Window PE?
Windows 7 AIK
Which of the followng is NOT a new feature of Windows PE 3.0?
A. A Windows imaging format that allows itself to be edited.
B. Window PE 3.0 is smaller than previous versions
C. Windows PE supports Hyper-V
D. Windows PE allows direct modification of the BIOS
Which of the following is NOT a use for Windows PE?
A. Custom deployments
B. System troubleshooting
C. Providing quick file server capability
D. System Recovery
You have a 3rd party controller card for your drivers. How do you install the drivers during installation?
Click the Load Driver button when the Windows Installation program asks, "Where do you want to install Windows?"
A(n)______ is a series of folders associated with a specific user that contains personal documents, user-specific registry setting, Internet favorites , and other personalized information.
User profile
You need to migrate user setting from one computer to a new computer with Windows 7. What type of migration is this?
Side-by-Side migration
You need to migrate user settings to a network share, performa clean installation of Windows 7 on a computer, and migrate the user settings from the network share computer. What type of migration is this?
What graphical program allows you to transfer user profile data from one computer to another?
Windows Easy Transfer
What is a USB cable that can be used to connect two Windows computers together solely for the purpose of using the Windows Easy Transfer program?
Easy Transfer cable
Where do you find yhe Windows Easy Transfer program to use with your Windows 7 machine?
Microsoft's website
Which program allows you to migrate user setting from one computer to a computer running Windows 7 using a command line interface?
What does the USMT use to keep track of the migration process?
XML files
What program do you use to determine if your machine can be upgraded to Windows 7?
Upgrade Advisor
What are the steps to upgrade a 32-bit version to a 64-bit version of Windows?
It cannot be upgraded
You have a computer with Windows XP, which is installed on the entire C drive. You now want to Install Windows 7 onto the computer and make it a dual boot. What can you do?
use a third-party tool to shrink the Windows XP partition
If you install Windows 7 on a wolume that has Windows XP, where do you find the old Windows files?
Windows.old folder
What do you call a Windows PE on a computer with Windows 7 already installed that allows you to troubleshoot and fix if the computer fails to start?
Windows RE
What stops a user from using Windows PE as a permanent operating system?
It reboots after 72 hours
What is the default folder to which Windows is installed?
What is the agreement that you have to accept when installing Windows?
What folders hold the user profiles on a system with Windows 7?
Windows 7 contains a _____ architecture that makes it easier to install multilingual support on a computer.
Which of the following is NOT an objective when performing a large-scale Windows 7 deployment?
A. Creating standardized computing software enviornments
B. Minimzing amount of user interaction required at workstation
C. Standardizing the computing hardware environments
D. Minimizing the interruption of user productivity
What do you call a template for a workstation configuration that contains all the software the workstation requires?
Reference computer
You are getting ready to deploy Windows 7 to multiple enterprise workstations. What do you use to hold the information captured from the reference computer?
Image file
What is a graphical utility that installers can use to create ditribution shares and answer files that automate and customize Windows 7 installations?
Windows SIM
What is an XML script that provides the Windows 7 Setup program with the information it needs to perform an unattended installation?
answer file
What is a command line tool that installers can use to capture, modify, and apply image files in the Windows Imaging format?
What is a command line tool that installers can use to mount, edit, and upgrade image files in the Windows Imaging format?
What is a command line program that installers can use to prepare Windows 7 computers for imaging, auditing, and deploymeny including preparing a reference computer?
What tool is a superset of Windows 7 AIK that enables you to perform lite-touch installation and zero-touch installation?
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 2010
What can be installed on Windows Server 2008 that enables installers to deploy Windows Imaging files to workstations over the network?
What parameter do you use with the sysprep command that configures Windows 7 to present the Windows Welcome interface the next time the computer starts?
You have a Windows image file for Windows 7. You need to add a device driver to the image file. What utility should you use?
To add drivers to an image using DISM.EXE, what file must you include?
.inf file
Which type of image contains all of the elements of a workstation configuration, including applications drivers, updates, and all configuration settings?
Thick images
Which type of image contains a basic install WIM image file?
Thin images
What command is used to partition a format disk?
What technology enables a computer to transmit the same data to multiple destinations at the same time?
What is the file-based disk image format used to deploy its latest Windows operationg system releases, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008?
Which script is used to create the Windows PE build?
What option is used with the imageX.exe to capture an image from a reerence computer?
What technology do you use to boot the server over the network to perform an installation over the network?
What is a customized boot image that you burn to a disk that enables a workstation to boot Windows PE and connect to the WDS server?
Discover image
What software replaces the Package manager that was available with the Windows AIK associated with Windows Vista?
What option do you use with the dism command to mount an image to a folder?
What basic network service is necessary to deploy an install image using WDS?
What is the default partition style used in Windows 7?
What is the largest disk that MBR supports?
2 TB
What is the maximum number of primary partitions that MBR supports?
What is the largest disk that GPT supports?
18 EB
What is the maximum number of primary partitions that GPT supports?
To support GPT, what computer architecture does your computer need to support?
Which type of disk uses primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives to organize data?
Basic disk
You are starting to run out of free disk space on a drive. What tool can you use to free up some disk space?
Disk Cleanup
What tool can you use to defragment your volumes by recopying fragmented files to contiguous space on the disk?
Disk defragmentation
What tool can you use to search for and fix disk errors?
check disk
What do you call a device driver that includes a digital signature that ensures that the device driver comes from the authentic puplisher and that someone has not maliciously altered it?
signed driver
What is the primary tool to manage devices and their drivers?
Device manager
You just installed a new driver for you scanner and now the scanner does not function at all. What should you do?
Roll back the driver
Which of the following is NOT a requirement to shrink a basic disk partition?
A. The existing partition pr volume must not be full
B. The partition or volume must not be a raw partition
C. The volume is NTFS
D. The volume is not using compression
What type of disk supports an unlimited number of volumes?
Dynamic disk
What type of volume support is based on RAID1?
Striped volume
What is the maximim number of volumes you can assign to a striped volume?
Which is the preferred file system used in Windows 7?
What is the main tool or utility that you use to manage your disk?
Disk management
What is the quickest way to access the Disk Management console?
Computer Management Console
Which of the following is NOT a basic requirement to extend a partition on a basic disk?
Read chapter 4 quiz question 14
What is used to determine if a signed driver has been altered?
____ are the rules or language in which networking is possible.
What type of connection does an unsheilded twisted pair (UTP) cable use?
What layer of the OSI model covers the cabling and electrical signaling?
What layer of the OSI model are the Media Access Control addresses part of?
What is the primary protocol used by Windows to communicate over a network?
On which layer of the OSI model is IPv4 adressing included?
What is used to specify which bits of an IPv4 address are used for the network identifier and which bits are used for the host identifier?
subnet mask
In what class is the address
class b
What is the default subnet mask for 198.54.653?
What is used avoid assigning entire addresses of a particular class to networks that didn't have thjat many hosts?
If you have an IPv4 address of with a subnet mask of, what is the CIDR notation?
Which of the following is NOT an IPv4 private address range? through
What would a corporation use to allow private IPv4 adresses to communicate with the internet?
What address is assigned to a computer that fails to locate a DHCP server?
What server automatically assigns IP addresses?
What type of address is the FCC0:0:0:0B5D:FF:BE3B:F4F7:3311?
What type of address defines a single network interface in a computer or other device?
Which type of IPv6 address is unique throughout the IPv6 universe?
What type of address mechanism is a tunneling protocol that enable computers to transmit IPv6 packets through NAT routers that do not support IPv6?
TCP is considered a ______ protocol.
What do you call codes that identify specific applications running on the system?
What utility or tool allows you to view and manage all your network connections?
Network and sharing center
What is a software routine that acts as a virtual barrier between a computer and the network to which it is attached?
What command is used to test network connectivity between two hosts?
What are privileges granted to a specific system entity, such as users, groups, or computers, which enable them to perform a task or access a resource?
What is used to store permissions?
What do you call permissions that run downward through a hierarchy?
You copy several files from one folder to another folder within the same drive. What permisssions do the files in the destination folder have?
the same as the target folder permissions
You copy several files from one folder to another folder in different drive. What permissions do the files in the destination folder have?
the same as the target folder permissions
You move several files from one folder to another folder within the same drive. What permissions do the files in the destination folder have?
The same permissions as the had in the source folder
You move several files from one folder to another folder in a different drive. What permissions do the files in the destination folder have?
The same permissions as the had in the source folder
True or false? Allow Full Control takes precedence over all other permissions granted.
True or false? Explicit permissions take precedence over inherited permissions.
True or False? Allow permissions are cumulative?
Which NTFS permission allows you to take ownership of a folder on an NTFS volume?
Full control
Which NTFS permission allows you to navigate through restricted folders to reach other files and folders?
read and execute
Which of the sharing methods places all the shared folders in a single location?
public folder sharing
Which type of sharing is new to Windows 7?
Homegroup sharing
By default, what type of acces is given to all users who join a workgroup?
What virtualized folders enable users to access files form different locations as if they were all in the same place?
What do you need to do to activate Public folder sharing?
Enable network discovery and Public folder sharing in the Netwrok and Sharing centre
How do you share a folder so that it is invisible to users browsing the network?
Add a dollar sign to the share name
What is the minimum permissions that allows you to add files to a shared folder?
You have a PC named PC1. You have a c:/Data folder that is shared as Data. You log on directly to PC1 and access the c:\Data folder using Windows Explorer. Which permissions apply?
NTFS permisssions combined with Share permissions as most restrictive
What do you call a device driver that converts the print jobs generated by applications into an appropriate string of commands for a specific print device?
Print driver
What do you call the set of commands that a printer understands in order to
Printer control language
You want to configure the printers sp that if an executive and an office worker print at the same time, the executive print job prints first. How do you do this?
Configure 2 print jobs and configure priorities
What permission must a user have to print to a printer?
You have a printer that is heavily used. You want to add a second printer and have users print to both printers at one. What do you need to do?
Create a printer pool
Which version of Internet Explorer comes with Windows 7?
IE 8
What is included with with IE8 that enables the browser to display older pages properly?
compatibility view
Which add-on enables users to send text or other media that you select in an IE browser window to another application, such as an email client, or an Internet resource, such as a blog?
What is based on a push technology used with IE that notifies you when a web site is changed?
What is used to help prevent attackers that penetrate the computer's defense from accessing vital system components?
protected mode
What configures IE to only low-integrity disk locations, such as the Temporary internet files and the standard IE storage areas, including the History, Cookies, and Favorites folders?
Protected mode
You are visiting a Web site that worked fine with IE6 on XP. You suspect it is not compatible with IE8's protected mode. What should you NOT do when troubleshooting this problem?
Run IE as a domain administrator (quiz 7)
Which of the following is NOT an available security zone found in IE?
A. Internet
B. Custom Sites
C. Local Intranet
D. Trusted Sites
Which security zone in IE provides the most elevated set of privileges?
Trusted sites
Which security zone used in IE is used for all web sites that are not listed in the other 3 zones?
Which security zone used in IE and usually used by local web sites does not run in protected mode and has significant access to the systemm including the ability ri run certain scripts?
Local Intranet (quiz 7)
What technology is used with IE8 to help defend against phishing?
SmartScreen Filtering
What feature in IE 8 enables you to surf the internet without leaving any record of your activities?
InPrivate filtering
You open Internet Options in IE8. Which tab do you use to enable or disable the pop-up blocker?
What is used in IE and is a text file that contains information about you and your web-surfing habits that a Web site maintains on your computer?
How do you know if you are using SSL while browsing with IE?
You have a gold lock in the address bar
When using SSL communications, the public key is stored in a ____.
Digital Certificate
What program that comes with Windows 7 is a wizard-based solution that users or administrators can use to automatically configure an executable file to use an appropriate Windows 7 compatibility mechanism?
Program Compatibilty Troubleshooter
When you open the properties of an executable file, which of the following is NOT a compatibility mode setting?
A. Run in 640x480 screen res
B. Run as Administrator
C. Run in Black and White
D. Run in 256 colors
You have a program that ran on your XP with SP2. You try to install the program on Windows 7, but it does not run. What should you try 1st?
Configure a Windows emulation mode
A compatibility fix, formerly known as a _______, is a software component that sits between an application and the operating system.
What specialized program collects compatibility information for web pages and web-based applications?
Internet Explorer Compatibility Test Tool
If you have a program that ran in XP but does not in Windows 7, what should you load to run the program?
Windows XP mode
Software Restriction policies and AppLocker are configured through ________.
Group Policies
To keep Windows reliable and secure, you must download and install Windows ______ on a regular basis.
What is a Windows update that addresses a specific problem or issue with Windows?
A _____ is a cumulative set of all updates for a particular operating system version, usually going back to its original release and are extensively tested.
Service pack
Which of the following is used to download Windows updates using the network's idle bandwidth?
D. NTTP (quiz 8)
______ is a program that downloads updates from the Microsoft Update Website, stores them for administrative evaluation, and deploys the updates when they are released by the administrators.
WSUS (quiz 8)
The best way to configure the WSUS client is through _____.
Group Policies
______ is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification interface to managed resources in Windows and it is used to create scripts to configure performance parameters.
WMI (quiz 8)
Logs are traditionally text files, but the Windows operating systems have long usd a graphical application called ___ to display the log information gathered by the operating system.
Event Viewer
Which of the following is NOT a traditional type of Windows log?
A. Application
B. Security
C. System
D. Installation (quiz 8)
You can use the _____ console on one computer to connect to another computer and display its logs.
Event viewer
What system rating quantfies capabilities of Windows 7 computer by breaking it down into categories and assigning each one a rating?
What tool can display information for hundreds of different statistics in a variety of ways so you can geta thorough picture of how well your system is performing?
Performance monitor
To capture counter statistics in the Performance Monitor console for later review, you must create a(n)_____.
DCF (quiz 8)
What tool automatically tracks events that can have a negative effect on system stability and used them to calculate a stability index?
Reliability monitor
What program quickly shows the current processes and how much memory each process takes?
Task manager
What program displays a more comprehensive breakdown of process and performance statistics than the task manager does?
Resource monitor
What program is used to configure and troubleshot the Windows 7 startup process?
System configuration tool
_____ is known as virtual memory in Windows 7.
Paging files
Which of the following is used to increase a computer's memory capacity using nonvolatile memory in the form of a USB flash drive or a flash memory card?
What is a caching routine that enables Windows 7 to restore user access to applications faster than Windows Xp?
ReadyBoost requires a computer with USB 2.0 interface and a ______ or larger flash drive.
256 MB
What service or program does WSUS require to operate?
IIS (quiz 8)
A computer is considered to be working too hard if the processor utilization is consistently more than ___%.
_____ enable administrators to receive events from other computers (called sources) in the Event Viewer console on thier own computers (called collectors).
______ is the process of verifying the identity of the person operating the computer.
______ is the process of granting an authenticated user a specific degree of access to specific computer data resources.
_____ enable users to perform specific operating system tasks such as shut down the system or perform backups?
User rights
_____ enable the user to manage, configure, or perform certain tasks on an object?
A ___ is an entity that represents a collection of users or computers?
What is a collection of computers that are all peers?
What is a collection of computers that all utilize a central directory service for authentication and authorization and is usually associated with Active Directory?
What program do you use to manage fully all local users and group accounts ona computer running Windows 7?
Computer management Console
_______ is a series of folders asscoiated with a specific user account that contains personal documents and personal setting.
User profile
Which type of user profile is automatically created when a user logs on the computer for the first time and is store on the computer's local hard drive?
Local user profile
Which type of user profile is stored on a shared server drive, which makes it accessible form anywhere on the network?
Roaming user profile
Which type of user profile is stored on a network share but does not allow changes to be saved?
Mandatory user profile
What technology helps prevent software from making changes to your system without your knowledge?
When accessing an object, the ____ lists each user that can access the object and what each user can do with the object?
Which group includes all members of the Authorized Users group plus the guest user account?
What program or component includes user accounts?
Control Panel
Which program is an MMC snap in: Control Panel, Registry Editor, Local Users and Groups or System Configuration
Local user and groups
Which tab would you use to configure a login script or a mapping to a home drive and folder when using the Local Users and Groups snap-in?
Which of the following do y ou have to create the same user account for on each computer that the user needs to access?
B. Workgroups
C. Domains
D. Groups (quiz 9)
What is a collection of logical objects that represent various types of newtwork resources such as computers, users and groups?
Directory service
What is Microsoft's directory service called?
Which account is designed for users that require only temporary access to the computer and is disabled by default?
What do you call it when you are loading an application and you get a credential prompt that makes the rest of the screen dull and unclickable?
Secure desktop
What do you call the process that tries every combination of characters, numbers or symbols until a password is guessed?
brute force
What option is used to make sure a user does not reuse the same password when changing a password?
Enforce Password History
What option enables strong passwords on a Windows 7 system?
Password Must Meet Complexity Requirements
To configure password settings such as a minimum password age or a password must meet complexity requirements, you use _____.
Group Policies
Which value defines the number of invalid logon attempts that trigger an account lockout?
Account Lockout Threshold
What tool is used to store and quickly retrieve the usernames and passwords for servers and websites that you have visited?
Credential manager
What is a credit-card like device that contains a chip on which is stored a digital certificate that helps identify a particular user?
Smart card
What standard does Windows 7 include to support smart cards?
What is used to encrypt files when using the Encrypting File System?
Digital certificate
What command enables you to execute a command as an administrator while logged in as a standard user?
Run as
To reset your password if you forget the administrator password for a computer running Windows 7, you should create a ______.
password reset disk
What are policies that define specific operating system functions?
User rights
What component in Windows 7 provides a centralized console that enables users and administrators to access, monitor, and configure the various Windows 7 security mechanism?
Action center
A(n) ____ is a software program that protects a computer by allowing certain types of network traffic in and out of the system while blocking others.
What type of application do users inadvertantly download and run which can open a connection to a computer on the internet, enabling an attacker on the outside to run programs or store data on the system?
trojan horse
Which program would you use to configure your IPSec connections?
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
What software component is used to protect against spyware?
Windows Defender
When Windows Defender is updated, it updates its ____ so that it knows how to detect and deal with new spyware.
The _____ is a feature of NTFS that encrypts the files on a computer so that even if an intruder can obtain a file, he is unable to read it.
Encrypting file system
What component can run a machine that is not part of the domain to control access to specific internet sites?
Parental control
Which tool provides an environment in which you can use command-line tools to work drivers, disks, and network resources that can be useful in troubleshooting?
Windows PE
You want to view the logs shown in the Event Viewer on a remote computer? What should you do?
Use the Connect to Another Computer command in the Action Menu within the Event Viewer
Which console can be customized to include any snap-in that you need organized in any way that you want?
Which troubleshooting tool enables you to connect to a user's remote computer, view and interact with the user's screen, and chat with the user?
remote assistance
What port does Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop use?
TCP 3389
Which program enables you to connect to a remote computer including servers with no interaction required from the remote computer?
remote desktop
_____ requires invitations to use.
remote assistance
How can you execute commands on a remote computer?
Use winrs.exe
Which components display the boot menu and loads the kernel?
Windows Boot Manager and Windows Boot Loader
Where is the boot menu configuration stored?
BCD registry file
____ reserves all of the system configuration, driver and registry changes you made since the computer last booted successfully.
Last Known Good Configuration
You load a driver for you motherboard and now the system does not boot properly. What should you do?
Use Last Known Good Configuration
What option starts the computer with a minimal set of generic drivers which are needed to run the system?
safe mode
Which tool enables you to easily enable or disable individual applications and services to be enables duriing the startup sequence?
System Configuration tool (MSconfig)
When Boot Logging is enabled, what is the name of the boot log and where is it located?
What is similar to Windows PE but also gives you a collection of recovery tools that can identify and repair many of t he problems that can prevent the system from starting?
Windows RE
What format supports Virtual PCs that contain the entire content of a hard disk in a single, portal file?
What program do you use to create a new VHD in Windows 7?
Disk Management console
How do you add a VHD to the boot menu?
Use BCDedit.exe
What new feature used with Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 enables networks with computers at remote locations to conserve bandwidth by store frequently accessed files on local drives?
Which Branchcache mode enables each Windows 7 workstation on the branch office network to cache data from the content server on its local drive and then shares the cached data with other local workstations?
Distributed cache mode
What type of backup creates a seperate backup of the computer's system disk and reserve partition that Windows 7 creates on the disk during installation and saves to a VHD file on the backup device?
System Image backup
_____ is a copy of various operating system configuration settings and registry information from a specific point in time.
system restore point
What are duplicates of files that Windows creates as pare of a restore point?
volume shadow copy
Which type of attack describes jamming the wireless frequencies used by a transmitter?
Denial of Service
Which technology is the most common to connect to a wireless network for a corporation that allows a date rate up to 54MB/sec?
What wireless technology allows up tp 600Mb/sec using MIMO?
Which wireless technology is considered a weak encryption protocol?
Which wireless encryption is considered the most secure?
Which encryption protocol was the first widely used wireless encryption protocol that used a unique encryption fo each packet?
Which tool is designed specifically for mobile PCs?
Windows Mobility Center
What protocol is used by network projectors to communicate?
What bundles together the configuration setting that users most often use when giving a presentation into a single switch?
Presentation setting
What technology is used to configure power settings using the graphical control panel?
What command is used to manage power?
What do you use to synchronize betwen your computer, offline drives and mobile devices?
Sync center
What replaced ActiveSync to synchronize data files, email, appointments and contact info with mobile devices?
Windows Mobile Device Center
What technology enables users to protect specific filesa and folders, so that no one else can access them?
If you don't have TPM, how else can you use Bitlocker?
Store the encryption key on a USB flash drive
What user account has the ability to recover BitLocker drives for an entire organization?
data recovery agent
What technology is used ot encrypt removable USB devices?
BitLocker to Go
What technology uses the remote client to connect to a remote access server over the internet?
Which VPN protocol connects using SSL?
What does L2TP use to encrypt data?
What feature is base on IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming protocol that reconnects to a VPN server automatically after an interruption?
VPN Reconnect
What component is used to ensure that all clients meet a minimum set of criteria such as up to date antivirus protection and windows updates?
Network Access Protection
____ enables remote users to automatically connect to the computer network whenever they have access.
What protocol does DirectAccess use to encrypt network communications?