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59 terms

Pathophysiology: Altered Ventilation and Diffusion

Chapter 13 Braun; Anderson
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acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS
a condition of severe acute inflammation and pulmonary edema without evidence of fluid overload or impaired cardiac function
adventitious
refers to an alteration in lung sounds, as with wheezing or crackles
air trapping
decreased effective O2 intake and especially CO2 release by retaining air within the alveoli because of loss of elasticity
anoxia
the absolute deprivation of oxygen
aspiration
a problem of inhaling a foreign substance into the lungs
asthma
a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways resulting in intermittent or persistent airway obstruction caused by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and excess mucous production
atelectasis
a condition of collapse and nonaeration of the alveoli
atopic
describes individuals having a genetic predisposition to developing hypsensitivities
bronchiectasis
the irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial tree most often caused by chronic obstruction or infection
caseous necrosis
a distinctive, yellow, pasty, cheese like necrosis of tuberculosis
cavitation
area of necrosis that erode surrounding structures of the lungs, including the bronchioles, bronchi, and surrounding blood vessels
chronic bronchitis
the presence of a persistent, productive cough that lasts for 3 months or longer for 2 or more consecutive years.
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
a generic term that describes all chronic obstructive lung problems including asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, separately or in combination
clubbing
a painless enlargement and flattening of the tips of fingers or toes due to chronic hypoxia
compliance
the expected distensibility, or expandibility, of the lung tissue and chest wall
consolidation
a solid mass in the lung tissue
cyanosis
a result of a greater proportion of desaturated hemoglobin in the blood, which gives the blood a bluish hue
auscultation
to listen with a stethoscope
cystic fibrosis (CF)
an autosomal recessive disorder of electrolytes and subsequently water transport that affects certain epithelial cells such as those lining the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts
dead space
an area where gas exchange cannot take place
diffusing capacity
a measurement of carbon monoxide (CO2), oxygen, or nitric oxide transfer from inspired gas to pulmonary capillary blood; is reflective of the volume of a gas that diffuses through the alveolar capillary membrane each minute
diffusion
movement of particles from an area of high to lower concentration
dyspnea
the subjective feeling of shortness of breath or the inability to get enough air
emphysema
an irreversible enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, most notable in the alveoli resulting in destruction of the alveolar walls and obstruction of airflow
expectorate
to spit out the mucus that is ejected during a cough
expiration
the process of removing carbon dioxide out of the body through the lungs
forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
the maximal amount of air expired from the lungs in 1 second
forced vital capacity (FVC)
the maximal amount of air that is exhaled from the lungs during a forced exhalation
fully saturated
a state in which all the available seats for hemoglobin molecules are occupied on the red blood cell
Ghon complex
a combination of of the Ghon focus and additional granulomas that develop through the lymph channels in the lungs
Ghon focus
the formation of a granuloma, or walled off area of bacteria, which is considered the primary lung lesion in tuberculosis
hemoptysis
coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; defined by the presence of red blood cells in the sputum
hypercapnia
a state of increased carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia
decreased oxygen in the arterial blood leading to a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)
hypoxia
cellular deprivation of oxygen
inspiration
the process of breathing in to acquire oxygen
orthopnea
the physical need to sit in an upright or standing position to reduce respiratory effort
oxygen saturation (SaO2)
the amount of oxyhemoglobin; that is the amount of hemoglobin that is combined, or saturated with oxygn
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
the oxygen-hemoglobin combination within the red blood cells
PaCO2
the symbol for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PaO2
the symbol for the partial pressure of oxygen
partial pressure
the force exerted by gas molecules within a certain volume
perfusion
the process of forcing blood or other fluid to flow through a vessel and into the vascular bed of tissue for the purposes of providing oxygen and other nutrients
phlegm
large amounts of sputum expectorated from the oropharynx
pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs occurring commonly in the bronchioles,interstitial lung tissue or the alveoli
pneumothorax
the presence of air in the pleural space that causes the lung to collapse
pursed lip breathing
a process of holding the lips puckered tightly together while slowly exhaling to maintain positive airway pressure in the alveoli; this minimizes air trapping and promotes expiration of carbon dioxide
residual volume (RV)
the volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration
respiration
the process of oxygen use as a source of energy for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release of metabolic products from the cell
respiratory failure
a life-threatening condition that can result from any problem that severely affects ventilation, ventilation-perfusion matching, or diffusion
retractions
the pulling in of accessory muscles usually in the intercostal, substernal, and supraclavicular spaces to promote more effective inspiration
sputum
expectorated material
status asthmaticus
a state of bronchospasm that is not reversed by by the patients medications or other measures
surfactant
a lipoprotein that coats the inner portion of the alveolus and promotes ease of expansion and repels fluid accumulation
tidal volume (TV)
the amount of air that is exhaled after passive inspiration; this is the volume of air going in and out of the lungs at rest; in adults this volume is approximately 500ml
total lung capacity (TLC)
the total amount of air in the lungs when they are maximally expanded; is the sum of the vital capacity and residual volume
tuberculosis
an infectious disease caused by an aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (bacillus) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ventilation
the movement of air into and out of the trachea, bronchi and lungs
vital capacity (VC)
the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs with forced inhalation and exhalation