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acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS
a condition of severe acute inflammation and pulmonary edema without evidence of fluid overload or impaired cardiac function
decreased effective O2 intake and especially CO2 release by retaining air within the alveoli because of loss of elasticity
a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways resulting in intermittent or persistent airway obstruction caused by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and excess mucous production
the irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial tree most often caused by chronic obstruction or infection
area of necrosis that erode surrounding structures of the lungs, including the bronchioles, bronchi, and surrounding blood vessels
the presence of a persistent, productive cough that lasts for 3 months or longer for 2 or more consecutive years.
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
a generic term that describes all chronic obstructive lung problems including asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, separately or in combination
a painless enlargement and flattening of the tips of fingers or toes due to chronic hypoxia
a result of a greater proportion of desaturated hemoglobin in the blood, which gives the blood a bluish hue
cystic fibrosis (CF)
an autosomal recessive disorder of electrolytes and subsequently water transport that affects certain epithelial cells such as those lining the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts
a measurement of carbon monoxide (CO2), oxygen, or nitric oxide transfer from inspired gas to pulmonary capillary blood; is reflective of the volume of a gas that diffuses through the alveolar capillary membrane each minute
an irreversible enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, most notable in the alveoli resulting in destruction of the alveolar walls and obstruction of airflow
forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
the maximal amount of air expired from the lungs in 1 second
forced vital capacity (FVC)
the maximal amount of air that is exhaled from the lungs during a forced exhalation
a state in which all the available seats for hemoglobin molecules are occupied on the red blood cell
a combination of of the Ghon focus and additional granulomas that develop through the lymph channels in the lungs
the formation of a granuloma, or walled off area of bacteria, which is considered the primary lung lesion in tuberculosis
coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; defined by the presence of red blood cells in the sputum
decreased oxygen in the arterial blood leading to a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)
oxygen saturation (SaO2)
the amount of oxyhemoglobin; that is the amount of hemoglobin that is combined, or saturated with oxygn
the process of forcing blood or other fluid to flow through a vessel and into the vascular bed of tissue for the purposes of providing oxygen and other nutrients
inflammation of the lungs occurring commonly in the bronchioles,interstitial lung tissue or the alveoli
pursed lip breathing
a process of holding the lips puckered tightly together while slowly exhaling to maintain positive airway pressure in the alveoli; this minimizes air trapping and promotes expiration of carbon dioxide
the process of oxygen use as a source of energy for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release of metabolic products from the cell
a life-threatening condition that can result from any problem that severely affects ventilation, ventilation-perfusion matching, or diffusion
the pulling in of accessory muscles usually in the intercostal, substernal, and supraclavicular spaces to promote more effective inspiration
a state of bronchospasm that is not reversed by by the patients medications or other measures
a lipoprotein that coats the inner portion of the alveolus and promotes ease of expansion and repels fluid accumulation
tidal volume (TV)
the amount of air that is exhaled after passive inspiration; this is the volume of air going in and out of the lungs at rest; in adults this volume is approximately 500ml
total lung capacity (TLC)
the total amount of air in the lungs when they are maximally expanded; is the sum of the vital capacity and residual volume
an infectious disease caused by an aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (bacillus) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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