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samual adams

-a leading opponent of British policy in the 1760s and 1770s
-helped organize the sons of liberty
-a leader in the agitation surrounding the boston massacre
-because of the Boston Tea Party, he was marked for arrest by the British

albany congress

-1754 meeting of representatives of seven colonies coordinated their efforts against french and native american threats in the western frontier regions
-benjamin franklin proposed a plan of union that was rejected by both the colonies and the british government

boston tea party

-in response to the tea act and additional british taxes on tea. boston radicals disguised as native americans threw nearly 350 chests of tea into boston harbor on december 16, 1773'
-parliment closed boston harbor and passed the coercive acts known as the intolerable acts

boston massacre

-a conflict between the british soldiers and boston civilians on March 5, 1770
-after civilians threw rocks and snowballs at the soldiers, the soldiers opened fire, killing five and wounding six

edward braddock

-seasoned british general sent to america to stop the french construction of a fort at what is now the city of pittsburgh
-on july 9, 1755 braddocks force of regulars and americans was crushed in an ambush that cost braddock and most of his men their lives

chancellor of the exchequer

-before and during the american revolution, this was the head of the british governmental department that issued and collected taxes
-many acts issued by the chancellor of the exchequer caused great resentment in the amrican colonies

circular letter

responding to the townshend acts, the massachusetts assembly circulated a letter to the other colonies, asking that they work together and jointly issue a petition of protest
-the strong willed response of the british authorities to the letter led the colonial assemblies to work more closely together

committees of correspondence

-these first existed in massachusetts, and eventually in all the colonies
-leaders of resistence to british rule listed their grievances against the british and circulated them to all the towns in the colony

currency act

-1764 british act forbidding the colonies to issue paper money as legal tender
-repealed in 1773 by the british as an effort to ease tensions with the colonies

declaration of rights and grievances

-1774 measure adopted b the first continental congress
-stated that parliament had some rights to regulate colonial trade with britain, but that parliament did not have the right to tax the colonies

declaratory act

-1766 british law stating that parliament had an absolute right to tax the colonies and to make laws that would be enacted in the colonies
-ironically, it was issued at the same time as the repeal of the stamp act

french and indian war

-the british and french fought to expand their empire in the americas from 1754-1763
-the war spread to europe and the rest of the world in 1756 and was called the seven yars war
-the british were victorious, receiving french canada as their main spoils of war

patrick henry

-as a member of the virginia house of burgesses, henry introduced resolutions protesting the stamp act
-proclaimed that the act showed the tyranny of king george iii, and reminded the king of the fates of caesar and charles I
-many considered his speech treasonous

intolerable acts

-also known as the coercive acts
-term used in the colonies for the bills passed by parliament to punish massachusetts for the boston tea party
-these included closing boston harbor, prohibiting local meetings, and mandatory quartering of troops in private homes

letters from a farmer in pennsylvania

-a 1767 pamphlet by pennsylvania attorney and landowner john dickinson, in which he eloquently stated the "taxation without representation" argument
-argued that parliament could onlyy meaningfully represent the colonies if colonists served in it

quartering act

-1765 british edict stating that to help defend the empire, colonial governments had to provide housing and food for british troops
-many colonists perceived this to be the ultimate insult, forcing them to pay for the troops that were there to control the colonies

sons of liberty

-men who organized opposition to british policies during the late 1760s and 1770s
-founded in boston in response to the stamp act
-organized the boston tea party
-samuel adams was one of their leaders

stamp act

-to help pay for the british army in north america, parliament passed this act in 1765, imposing a tax on all legal documents and newspapers, which now had to have official stamps
-resistence to the stamp act was severe in the colonies, and it was eventually repealed

stamp act congress

-representatives of nine colonies met in new york in october 1765
-the document produced by the congress maintained the loyalty of the colonies to the crown but condemned the stamp act
-the stamp act was repaeled within one year

suffolk resolves

-were sent from suffolk county,massachusetts, to the first continental congress in september 1774
-called for the citizens of all the colonies to prepare to take up arms against the british
-after much debate, the first continental congress adopted them

sugar act

-an effort to pay for the british army located in north america, this 1764 measure taxed sugar and other imports
-tried to raise money from the american trade with the french west indies
-harsh penalties were imposed on smugglers who did not pay the duty on sugar

tea act

-1773 act by parliament that would provide the colonies with cheap tea, but at the same time force the colonies to admit that parliament had a right to tax them
-the sons of libery resisted, most notably at the boston tea party
-britain responded with the coercive acts

townshend acts

-1767 parliamantry acts that forced colonists to pay duties on goods coming from england, including tea and paper, and which increased the power of the customs service
-colonial resistance was fierce, boston was occupied by british troops
-repealed in 1770

treaty of paris, 1763

-treaty that ended the french and indian war
-britain gained most french territory in the new world, most importantly canada
-britain gained florida from spain
-france gave spain louisiana as compensation for the loss of Florida

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