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175 terms

Marjorrie's Notes - Communication Midterm to Final Review

Midterm-Final
STUDY
PLAY
CHAPTER 1: After ending a romance, Ashley takes some time to process the meaning of the relationship. She asks HERSELF what she did wrong...
intrapersonal
Small group communication serves both _____ needs (those for companionship, affection, and support) and _____ needs (those that get things done).
relationship; task
Gretta was invited to share her research findings with the board of directors. The board consisted of twelve members who all arrived specifically to listen to Gretta's presentation.
public communication
Your ability to understand, analyze, evaluate, and produce mass communication messages (television, film, radio, newspapers, Web sites, etc.) is referred to as:
media literacy
Janene has noticed that in most of her interactions, individuals perform BOTH sender and receiver roles simultaneously. On which of the following communication models is she focusing?
transactional
Speakers are referred to as encoders and listeners or readers are referred to as decoders in which communication model?
transactional model
Usually you encode an idea into a code that others understand, such as an ethnic language or a shared vocabulary. But sometimes you may want to exclude others. Which of the following is an example of excluding others?
speaking in a particular language or using jargon
A message that makes reference to another message is referred to as a:
metamessage
Sometimes when Rachel speaks in her political science class, she gets blank stares from those listening. She is experiencing:
feedback
Kareem accesses a number of Internet blogs for both entertainment and research purposes. He notices that some blogs contain a lot of useful information, with interesting facts and opinions. Others contain useless fluff or are full of junk. This degree of usefulness of information relates to the concept of:
signal-to-noise ratio
The difficulty individuals experience when attending to the system of signals employed by various cultures is explained by which of the following communication principles?
Communication is a process of adjustment
Accepting that messages have multiple interpretations acknowledges which of the following principles?
Communication is ambiguous
One principle of communication is that it is purposeful. The five basic purposes of communication are:
to learn, to relate, to help, to influence, to play
Shawn made an extremely negative and inappropriate comment to a classmate about the Boston Red Sox and his instructor overheard it. He quickly recanted by saying, "I'm sorry. That was stupid. You know I didn't mean it. Boston has the best team in America." But his instructor still felt disturbed by the exchange. This example demonstrates which of the following principles of human communication?
Communication is irreversible and unrepeatable
Individuals have a variety of misconceptions about the human communication processes. Which of the following best describes a basic misconception that individuals struggle to recognize about their communication with others?
Communication is reversible
_________ consists of the beliefs, ways of behaving and artifacts of a group.
culture
The five dimensions of culture include all of the following, except:
cultural ambiguity
__________ is considered a cultural variable largely because cultures teach boys and girls different attitudes, beliefs, values, and ways of communicating to one another.
Gender
Ramona is confused about how to approach her roommate, who recently moved to the U.S. from Russia, so she is talking to her mother about her roommate's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In this way, Ramona is describing her roommate's:
culture
Alexis is stunned by the television coverage of human rights abuses in African nations and Internet photos of widespread devastation. If she hadn't seen these graphic images, she probably wouldn't have felt so strongly. Her reaction involves which of the major factors that influence culture?
communication technology
Sidney has a very particular view about organization. He values predictability and needs to be surrounded by order, and he doesn't like ambiguity or surprises. Which dimension of culture is involved here?
uncertainty avoidance
Xiu is trying to distance herself from her family's strong Chinese heritage and attachment to ancient tradition. This indicates that she is trying to reduce her commitment to the beliefs and philosophies of her culture, referred to as:
ethnic identity
Which of the following is true regarding ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism involves assuming that our view of our own culture is superior to the view of any other cultures.
____________ is a state of awareness in which you are conscious of your reasons for thinking or behaving
Mindfulness
Communication ____________ refers to your knowledge of how communication works and your ability to use communication effectively.
competence
CHAPTER 4: Christina's instructor talked about the concept of "filtration" during her chemistry class. If Christina needed to look up the meaning of this term in the dictionary, she would be assessing its:
denotative meaning
General words or terms are called
abstractions
Which of the following statements is the LEAST abstract
"By the tenth, send me a memo listing the strengths and weaknesses as you see them."
Rebecca had a problem with her level of directness when communicating with others. According to research on male and female differences for communicating directness, which of the following is true?
Women tend to communicate powerlessness and discomfort with their own authority.
A _____ dictates the ways that people properly interact and function within a culture.
cultural rule
The principle of cooperation has four subprinciples, or _____ . These elaborate on the culturally accepted assumption that in any interaction, both parties will make an effort to understand one another.
conversational maxims
___________ is the subjective or emotional meaning that specific speakers or listeners give to a word.
Connotation
Words that are highly NEGATIVE, such as "She's an idiot," are sometimes called:
snarl words
Words that are highly POSITIVE, such as "She's a real sweetheart," are sometimes called:
purr words
All of the following are concrete words, EXCEPT:

•bicycle
•tree
•concept
•film
concept
All of the following are abstract words, EXCEPT:

•vase
•value
•process
•concept
vase
Sally and Shondra are coworkers. Sally treats Shondra as if her comments are of little value, as if her ideas aren't worth anyone's attention, and basically as if Shondra didn't exist. Sally is engaging in:
disconfirmation
Ashid was ready to take the next step with Elizabeth and move toward an intimate relationship. To do this, Ashid interacted in such a way that showed how he accepted Elizabeth and her own self-definition. In this situation, Ashid is displaying which of the following forms of communication?
confirmation
Anthony often displays a number of disconfirmation behaviors during his interactions with others. What advice might you offer Anthony to become better at confirming rather than disconfirming when speaking with others?
Demonstrate understanding of what the other person says and means
"Gay bashing" and the use of certain language that can be construed as disparaging to gay men or lesbians is a form of:
individual heterosexism
Though they change over time, which of the following terms is currently an ACCEPTED and preferred cultural identifier?
"older person"
Language that disparages someone because of his or her gender is considered _______ language.
sexist
_____________ sexism involves customs and practices that discriminate against people because of gender.
Institutional
Ryan had always talked about Michelle in a positive way, describing her as a "great person" and a "free spirit". When William met Michelle for the first time, he immediately thought of her as "great person" and a "free spirit" because that's the way Ryan had always described her. In this situation, William is using a(n):
intensional orientation
Gabriella found herself JUMPING to CONCLUSIONS about people by the time she hears only half of the story or the event. Which of the following terms reflects the assumptions that Gabriella is making regarding other people?
inferences
After talking with William for the first time, Danielle said to herself, "I doubt if he likes me. But then again it's hard to tell. It was our first date. It was loud in the restaurant so we couldn't talk much, and we didn't have a lot of time tonight, et cetera." This statement about William's interest in Danielle would be classified as a(n):
extensional orientation
Sabrina invited her friends from the elementary school faculty for Sunday brunch. Her husband, Lee, rolled his eyes and said, "Oh boy, a room full of school teachers, what a blast this will be." Lee's FAILURE to DISTINGUISH between SIMILAR, BUT DIFFERENT PEOPLE is
indiscrimination
This term is used to describe the fallacy of the "EITHER/OR" and explains the world in EXTREMES.
Polarization
When you RETAIN JUDGEMENT of a person, DESPITE the inevitable CHANGES in that person, you are engaging in ________ evaluation.
static
This device is a MENTAL SUBSCRIPT that HELPS GUARD against STATIC evaluation.
date
CHAPTER 5 After dating for ten years, Christopher and Lauren were forced to spend the summer apart from one another. At the airport, Christopher turned to Lauren and said, "I will always love you" and began to cry. This event best illustrates which use of nonverbal communication?
complementation
Steven is a very quiet person who would prefer to utilize nothing but his nonverbal behaviors to communicate with others, if that were possible. He limits his verbal communication and often simply shakes his head "yes" and "no" when people ask him questions. Which of the following methods is Steven using to eliminate the use of verbal communication?
substitute
During a long conversation, you noticed that you were running late for an upcoming class. To stop the conversation you pointed to your watch and said, "I need to get going or I'll be late." Which of the following uses is your nonverbal behavior serving in this situation?
repeating
Robert is talking quickly and excitedly, barely taking a breath. As he goes on and on, Sarina holds up her hand to indicate "STOP." Sarina's nonverbal gesture is an example of a(n)
regulator
While waiting for the door to the electronics store to be opened, Kevin subconsciously jingled the keys in his pocket. This behavior may be best described as a(n):
object-adaptor
Which of the following characteristics of nonverbal communication may be the best indicator of how involved a person is in a communication situation?
eye contact
After watching the president's speech with his friends, Glen starts a lively conversation and hopes to hear other people's opinions about it. He wants to position himself at the distance considered to be the most comfortable for the free exchange of feedback. In this case, he would maintain a(n)
personal distance
Inside Amanda's cubicle at work, a huge letter "A" hangs on the wall and a sticker that says "Amanda's place" is on the computer monitor. To claim her space, Amanda has used
ear markers
Brenda stays out all night during a heavy snowstorm and doesn't get home till the following evening. Her mother says, "It would have been polite to call, since it was the worst blizzard of the decade." Brenda points out that she is twenty-three years old and not a child anymore. She gives a number of examples of her independence and maturity. Her mother remains silent. What function does her mother's silence fulfill?
to give Brenda time to think and digest the information presented
________________ serve to divide your territory from that of others
Boundary markers
_____________ markers are items you place in a territory to reserve it for you, such as a coat over a chair.
Central
The study of smell communication is called
olfactics
Touch communication, also called __________ communication, is the most primitive form of nonverbal communication
tactile
The study of touch communication is called
Haptics
_____________ is/are the vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech
Paralanguage
Individuals normally remove themselves physically from interaction when addressing large groups. Which proxemic distance does this involve?
public distance
Compared to men, women tend to _____ while speaking and in listening, and while communicating with both men and women.
make eye contact more and maintain it longer
The members of a _____ tend to minimize the level of closeness and amount of touch they display during conversations with others.
noncontact culture
People in monochronic cultures see time as

•fluid and flexible.
•rigid and structured.
•insignificant.
•a foundation upon which to create relationships.
rigid and structured
People in _____ cultures believe that human relations are more important than the business at hand. So, even in business situations, time is a relativity unimportant issue
polychronic
Which of the following tends to be true concerning people who operate on polychronic time?
They treat time schedules and plans as useful, not sacred
In the US, the color ____________ signifies capitalism, go ahead, and envy
green
In China, the color __________ signifies wealth and authority
yellow
Silence may signal all of the following, EXCEPT

•personal anxiety
•emotional response
•the importance of the message
•intense interest
intense interest
_____________ messages are conveyed through objects or arrangements made by human hands.
Artifactual
CHAPTER 6 ____________ communication is that which occurs between two people who have a relationship and who are influenced by each other's messages.
Interpersonal
Which of the five stages of communication is generally focused on achieving some type of goal?
business
Which stages of communication would you be most likely to hear someone say, "How are you?"
opening
Conversation takes place in ____ steps
5
Interpersonal communication can be considered as part of a continuum ranging from __________ to __________.
impersonal; personal
All of the following are considered personal forms of communication, EXCEPT
a doctor talking with a patient
The second step in the interpersonal communication process is ____________.
feedforward
In the feedforward stage of interpersonal communication, you are attempting to open the _________ of communication.
channels
A(n) __________ message is one which signals that communication will take place.
phatic
In office memos and e-mail messages, the feedforward function is served by the _________ that indicates the subject of the message.
header
All of the following are general purposes of interpersonal communication, EXCEPT:
to dominate
The fourth step of conversation is ____________, which is where you reflect on the conversation.
feedback
In the __________ step of the communication process, the intention is to summarize the conversation.
closing
Throughout the speaking-listening process, both speaker and listener exchange cues for what are called _______________ turns.
conversational
The purpose of ____________ cues is to communicate your wish to maintain the role of speaker in the conversation.
turn-maintaining
The purpose of __________________ cues is to communicate that you are as speaker are finished and want to turn the role of speaker over to the one listening.
turn-yielding
The purpose of ____________ cues is to communicate that you (as the listener) would like to say something and take a turn as speaker.
turn-requesting
______________ cues are used to communicate various types of information back to the speaker without assuming the role of speaker.
back-channeling
___________ is/are attempts on the part of the listener to take over the role of speaker.
Interruptions
Research has found that men tend to ____________ in conversations more than women.
interrupt
Ezra approached his manager and began discussing a few ideas he had for organizing the department's daily workflow. His manager began to interrupt but Ezra took a breath, held up his hand, avoided eye contact, and continued speaking. Ezra is using
turn-maintaining cues
When Brian is done talking and wants the other person to respond, he lifts his arms, opens his palms, shrugs, and says, "Am I right?" Brian is using
turn-yielding cues
When Charles and Ramone get on the phone, Charles goes on and on, barely acknowledging Ramone other than as an accepting listener. When Charles does all the talking and Ramone does all the listening, the communication is
monologic
In order to create immediacy, Maureen decides to focus on the remarks of others, let them know they were heard, and give appropriate feedback. Which technique for communicating immediacy is Maureen using here?
orienting the conversation to the other person
In _________, each person is both speaker and listener, sender and receiver.
dialogue
CHAPTER 7 William and Christina have been dating for the past two months and Christina currently thinks William is the best thing that has ever happened to her. He's intelligent, generous, witty, and he listens when she talks. In which of the following stages of an interpersonal relationship are William and Christina?
involvement
During the ____________ part of a relationship, couples often experience a shift in focus from the past and present toward the future by hinting about a shared future together.
interpersonal commitment
Just as relationships are able to develop, they also find themselves failing in predictable stages. In which phase of a relationship do partners discuss the problems they are having and the changes they would like to see?
interpersonal repair
In the contact stage of relationships, _________ contact is typically superficial and impersonal.
interactional
After 6 months of dating, Lucinda has decided to bring her boyfriend home to meet her parents and little sister. What intimacy stage best characterizes their relationship?
social bonding
At what stage of the interpersonal relationship process do partners begin to share social networks?
Intimacy
The intimacy stage is usually divided between the interpersonal phase and the ________ phase.
social bonding
As a relationship deteriorates, there is less of all the following, except
deception
Carla used to think that Hamilton's laugh was cute; now she finds it extremely annoying. Carla is experiencing relationship __________.
deterioration
The two most common feelings that accompany the ending of a relationship are loneliness and
depression
The __________ of a relationship has to do with the number of topics you and your partner talk about.
breadth
Clara told James, "I think we should spend a few weeks apart to think about our relationship." Clara is sending a __________ message to James
dissolution
Steve is pushing hard on Barb to get engaged but Barb's response is that she doesn't want to make that commitment right now. Barb is sending Steve a __________ message.
maintenance
In a friendship of ______________, one person is the primary giver and the other person the primary receiver.
receptivity
Carl and Wanda live next to each other in the apartment building. They see each other almost every day and are friendly but have no interest in a romantic or even a social relationship. What kind of friendship do they have?
Association
A love that is peaceful and tranquil is called ______________ love.
storge
Daniel "fell in love" with Clarice the first time he saw her. He is experiencing which type of love.
eros
A relationship between two people who are dating would be considered a _________ relationship.
primary
The principle of complementarity says that we are attracted to those who are
opposite
James and Hieu live in apartments facing one another. They are friendly and cordial, sharing polite banter and joking around, but they don't have a true commitment. Which type of friendship do James and Hieu have?
friendship of association
Helena and Henry began connecting with one another when they were moved into adjoining cubicles at work. They spend their days several feet away from one another, overhearing conversations and sharing office supplies, taking breaks and lunches together. Which element of attraction does this represent?
proximity
In India, women may experience greater difficulty than men in divorce, in part, because of their _________ dependence on men.
economic
Compared to men, women __________ in interpersonal relationships
are more affectionate
Which of the following is one of the benefits or advantages that people who communicate with others in an online format would most likely experience?
Increased physical safety
When it comes to interpersonal relationships between men and women, research confirms that men are more _______ than women.
romantic
CHAPTER 8 Which of the following is true regarding conflict?
Conflict occurs between people who are connected
Interpersonal conflict is part of
every interpersonal relationship
In a study of same-sex and opposite-sex couples, which of the following issues did both types of couples least often argue about?
distrust issues, such as lying
What is the most often mentioned area or issue of conflict among gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples?
intimacy
Jake and Jon go to see a comedy movie together. On the way out, they start arguing about whether it was good or bad. Jake thinks it was very funny, while Jon thinks it was kind of stupid. What type of conflict does this represent?
content
The phrase: "I earn the money, therefore, I get to choose the type of car we buy," is representative of the ____________ conflict style.
competing
The accommodating conflict style represents a__________ philosophy.
I lose, you win
___________ is a special kind of avoidance where a person refuses to discuss or listen to the other person's argument.
Nonnegotiation
When confronted with conflict, many people prefer not to deal with the issues but rather become _________ in their position in an effort to dominate.
forceful
Qiu tends to attack other people's self-concepts. In this way, Qiu shows herself to be
aggressive
Which of the following is one of the few stereotypes that is supported by research on conflict?
the sometimes aggressive male
Ursula usually blames her boss when any kind of problem occurs in the office. She rarely seems to recognize what she does wrong, but regularly expects her boss to admit being wrong. What kind of conflict style does Ursula use?
competition
Elise tends to give in whenever her friends or coworkers disagree with her. She doesn't like conflict and would rather "go with the flow" than fight for her opinion. What is her conflict style?
accommodating
Mindy and Mavis always seem to have dirty dishes in the sink. One day they start arguing about the continual mess and who is responsible for it. Mindy proposes that she will do all the dishes this week if Mavis will do them next week, and so on. What style of conflict is Mindy using?
compromise
When you evaluate or judge another person or what that person has done, that person is likely to become
defensive
Evaluative "you" messages are likely to elicit a(n) ____________ response in the person who receives them.
defensive
All of the following are types of talk that are likely to prove destructive except
empathy
When Karina gets mad at Javier, she goes into the bedroom, turns on the radio, and doesn't come out all night. Karina's behavior is a form of
avoidance
Luis acts as if he doesn't care when Cecile gets upset about something. He goes about his business, smiling and singing to himself. Luis is demonstrating
neutrality
Felicity tends to get her way by using extreme emotionalism, power tactics, and crying. These are all examples of:
silencers
Tina keeps quiet when she gets irritated or annoyed until finally she can't stand it and explodes. She uses what kind of conflict strategy?
gunnysacking
There are _______ basic styles for engaging in conflict as it relates to interpersonal relationships.
5
The phrase, "Let's explore this issue together and try to find a solution" is an example of the attitude of
provisionalism
One frequently used silencing technique is
crying
________ aggressiveness is a method of winning an argument by inflicting psychological pain.
Verbal
CHAPTER 9 A number of defining characteristics identify small group interaction. Which of the following groups of people are probably NOT involved in small group interaction?
individuals who are working independently
You need at least ______ people to be considered a group
3
The members of a group must be connected to one another through some common _______.
purpose
In healthy small groups, members are _________on/with one another:
interdependent
In business environments, _____ are sometimes stated in a company contract or policy.
group norms
A team consists of all of the following characteristics, except:
Is relationship focused
One of the best examples of how virtual groups serve relationship purposes is ____________ sites.
social networking
There are typically _____ stages in a small group.
5
In what stage of the small group does the group reflect on what it has done and remains to be done?
Feedback
At what stage of the small group process does the group discuss the actual tasks they are attempting to accomplish.
Business
All of the following are small group formats, except:
the gymnasium
__________ is social talk that involves making evaluations about persons who are not present during the conversation.
Gossip
In the __________ small group format, members arrange themselves physically in a circular or semicircular pattern.
roundtable
At what stage in the small group process do group members attempt to identify what needs to be done and who will do it?
Feedforward
Which method of discussion involves a process for generating many ideas in a short time and allows members to say what pops into their minds without fear of evaluation?
brainstorming
Which of the following is a good guideline for brainstorming?
The more responses, the better.
A learning group that organizes its discussion around major functions or divisions would be using a:
topical pattern.
In most ____________ groups, all members have something to teach and something to learn.
information-sharing
During a focus group discussion, the role of the facilitator is to uncover:
members' beliefs, attitudes, and feelings.
The goal of Shelley's group is to reach a decision on how to accommodate students with disabilities in the university setting. Shelley is most likely involved in a:
problem-solving group
As they began to assess their group's problem, Jose noted they should first make sure that any solution they selected would not result in an increase in student tuition. Which of the following stages would this group be in during the problem-solving sequence?
establishing criteria for evaluating solutions
The first step for effective problem solving and decision making is:
defining and analyzing the problem.
The problem-solving sequence is described as a step-by-step form of information processing that allows groups to develop the best decision. According to the text, which of the following steps do groups neglect most often?
defining and analyzing the situation
_____________ implies that all members of a group had their say and that their opinions were carefully considered.
Consensus
In ___________ the group agrees to abide by the majority decision and may vote on various issues as it searches to solve its problem.
majority rule