Representation, Represent the people, law making, consesus building, overseeing the buraucracy, in the executive branch but congress oversees to make sure laws and policies are being carried out correctly, policy clarification, publicize issues, investigatin the operation of government agencies, includes teh white house, hold hearings, impeachment, Senate, confirm the president's appointees, and ratify a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among positions... everyday buraucracies include governments, armed forces, corporations, non-governmental organizations among many more; from wikipedia: the collective organizational structure, procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in place to manage activity, ususally in large organizations and government; from the book: a large, complex organization characterized by a hierarchial set of offices, each with a specific task, controlled through a clear chain of command, and where appointment of personnel is based on merit. Within the conistutional, the presidents formal powers are chief executive of federal bureaucracy, nominate and appoint key officials, implement and enforce laws, veto bills, negotiate trieaties, recongnize foreign nations, commander in shief, chief of state, pardon or gran clemency, power to convene congress. His informal powers are propose an annual budget, develop new policies taht promot peace and prosperity, national moreal builder, internation peace maker, public opinion leader, party leader The president->departments (Bureaus and Agencies), Independent Executive Agencies, Government Corporations, Quasi-Governmental Agency, Independent Regulatory Commissions, Foundations. So the president is on top, then the departments, then the cabinets, within the cabinets are agencies. Independent executive agencies report directly to the president. Government corporations are like private companys. (market failures). Independent regulatory commissions: securities and exchange commissions, government is involved, but protected from direct presidential control. Foundations: government can allocate money to them, just supposed to do research, not get involved in parliament stuff, health research etc. responsible for the executive branch of the federal govt, chief of state, legislative leader, manager of the economy, chief executive of federal bureaucracy, nominate & appoint key officials, implement & enforce laws, veto bills, negotiate treaties, power to convene congress, pardon or grant clemency, foreign policy leader & commander in chief of US armed forces. the norm of reciprocity was always less prevalant than it was in the House. Bills are scheduled for floor debate by unanimous consent. Each sector has the power to place a hold & fillibuster is also used. informal, open, & nonhierarchical. leaders have only few formal powers, members may serve on 2 or more major commitees, less specialized than house, unrestricted floor debate, unlimited amendments possible, amendments need not be germane, unlimited time for debate unless shortened unanimously by cloture, more prestige, more reliance on staff, minority plays a larger role. The state courst have many problems. Prominent among these are problems of organization, structure, and deployment. Unlike the state court systems, the federal courts has a unified structure with jurisdiction throughout the United States and its territories, The federal court system is also complex. It has a hour-teir structure similar to that found in most of the states. It handles fewer cases than state court systems do. The federal court system is responsible for the enforcement of the following: 1.All federal codes(criminal, civil, and administrative) in all 50 states, US territories, and the District of Columbia, and 2.Local codes and ordinances in the territories of Guam, the Virgina Islanda. amd the Northern Mariana Islands.