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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
The Holocaust\Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (72)
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
Opposition to and discrimination against Jews
A name or title
Arbeit Macht Frei
German words on the gate at Auschwitz; "work makes you free"
German people who Hilter saw as the master race
Largest and most notorious of all the concentration camps; was both a slave labor camp and a death camp. Established in 1940 as a concentration camp, it became a death camp in early 1942. Eventually it consisted of three sections: Auschwitz I, the main camp; Auschwitz II, also known as Birkenau, a death camp; and Auschwitz II, the I. G. Farben labor camp, also known as Buna.
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
A deep ravine outside the Ukrainian city of Kiev, where the Einsatzgruppen murdered and buried close to 34,000 Jews over the course of two days (September 29-30, 1941
A killing center in Poland that used gassing. Only one inmate of Belzec survived the war. Gerstein, an SS officer, was invited to watch the gassing & when the the gas motor broke down the Jews had to wait naked for 3 hours. Gerstein attempted to stop these killings, but was eventually captured and died in prison. This is important because it shows the harshness of killing centers, but also that some people tried to put an end to what they saw.
German concentration camp, Weimer Germany, 56,000 victims, 13,000 transferred, built by prisoners
A death camp in Poland near the ghetto at Lodz (the first place that Roma were gathered for extermination). The use of gas for mass murder started here in 1941.
Prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
A furnace where a corpse can be burned and reduced to ashes
The first concentration camp, run by a brutal SS platoon, a thousand Germans were held there without warrant or trial, 10% of them were Jews, where beatings and terrible conditions were the rule, right outside of Munich
A Nazi killing squad. The Einsatzgruppen mass-murdered Jews systematically, and buried them into pits or burned their bodies. This squad of police and former soldiers killed more than one million Jews, which is an astounding 20% of the total Jews killed in the Holocaust.
Held in Evian, France idea of European countries taking in Jewish immigrants, no European countries took in the Jewish refugees, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic were the only countries to take in the refugees
Nazi camps for the mass killing of Jews and others(Gypsies, Russian prisoners of war, and ill prisoners). Known as "death camps". Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka were all in Poland.
Final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
Title used when Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany after Hindenburg's death. Lit: "Leader"
This was the primary method of murder in death camps. Buildings or parts of buildings which were sealed off and air tight so that large numbers of people could be murdered by poisonous gas.
Nazi secret police
A nomadic people, believed to have come originally from northwest India, from where they immigrated to Persia. First appeared in western Europe in the 15th century. They were persecuted almost as relentlessly as the Jews.
Blessing after three stars are seen signifying the end of Sabbath. Also the name of the candle which is lit at the end of the Sabbath.
A machine for tabulating and sorting punched cards and tabulating data from them.; the first automatic data processing system; utilized for the census; developed by Herman Hollerith.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
A religious denomination that expects the millennium to begin within a very few years.
Don't salute to flag, celebrate birthdays, or have blood transfusions, etc
Believed in a single God; an ancient Babylonian civilization; first monotheistic religion.
Known as the scapegoats because church blames everything on this group of people such as the plague; they were given one opportunity to be a banker; the Christians thought interest was simple and also blamed it on the bankers.
The group of people that Adolf Hitler blamed Germany's defeat in World War I on.
Jewish council formed by Germans as a way to issue orders to Jews and administer Jewish affairs
Nazi term for "Jew free"
An ancient Jewish prayer sequence regularly recited in the synagogue service, including thanksgiving and praise and concluding with a prayer for universal peace.
Trustees that carried out the will of the Nazi camp commandants and guards, and were often as brutal as their SS counterparts. Some were Jewish.
"On March 13-March 14, 1943 the final 'liquidation' of the ghetto was carried out under the command of SS-Untersturmführer Amon Göth. Eight thousand Jews deemed able to work were transported to the Plaszow labor camp. Those deemed unfit for work - some 2,000 Jews - were killed in the streets of the ghetto on those days. Any remaining were sent to Auschwitz."
The central theme of this prayer is the sanctification of Gods name
Name given to the rescue mission that took place during the nine months prior to the outbreak of WWII, in which the U.K. took in nearly 10,000 predominantly Jewish children from Nazi Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland. The children were placed in British foster homes, hostels, and farms, most surviving the war, and a small number being reunited with family after the war.
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Soviets found this "concentration camp" in Poland and liberated the thousands of starving prisoners barely alive,
the world's largest crematorium
Concentration camp that was the center of a large group fo German concentration camps. Became one of the largest labor complexes with four main sub camps. It was a designated a punishment camp because it would work their labors to death
"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany
Decorative object nailed to the doorpost of a Jewish home which contains a tiny scroll with the Shema
People who had both Christian and Jewish ancestors. In these people's case depending on how many were of their grandparents were Jewish or Christian was how they were deemed Aryan or Jewish
Jewish group that faces discrimination in Israel
National socialism. In practice a far-right wing ideology (with some left-wing influences) that was based largely on racism and ultra-nationalism.
Night and Fog
(December 7, 1941) secret order to seize "persons endangering German security" who were to vanish without a trace into night and fog
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Fighters who harass an enemy occupying their territory
An organized massacre of a particular ethnic group.
Hitler's "stormtroopers" who were meant to protect his political ideals. Many were former unemplyed soldiers.
A cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings.
Hebrew term for the Holocaust; meaning "catastrophe"
Small towns and villages in Poland and Russia that were made up mostly of Jews. (word from Yiddish)
Concentration camp in Poland. Only successful camp to escape. About 250,000 died.
Was open in May 1942 and it closed in October of 1943 and they killed 250,000 and they closed because of a rebellion of the prisoners.
A group of prisoners within the death camps assigned to collect belongings and dispose of the bodies of other prisoners who had died or been killed
A special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925, from the German word "Schutzstaffel, meaning protection squad.
The official emblem of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich
The euthanasia program directed against the physically and mentally handicapped persons who were considered "useless" in the new German Reich. The T-4 program served as the training ground for methods of mass murder that would later be used in the death camps, such as gassing and cremation of bodies.
A fringed shawl traditionally worn by Jewish men at prayer.
Theresienstadt (a.k.a Terezin)
Fake concentration camp and ghetto where the Danish Red Cross wanted to visit to ensure that the Jews were being treated well. Knowing this, the Nazis planned a specific route that the Red Cross would see and decorated it nicely and cleaned it up to make it look like fun even installing playgrounds and monuments to deceive them.
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
The first five books of Jewish Scripture, which they believe are by Moses.
Death camp in Poland. 850,000 Jews were murdered in gas chambers in just one year. In 1943 the camp was blown up by an uprising of the remaining 600 prisoners, all but 40 died.
"under people"; word used by Nazi racial ideology to describe "inferior people", especially "the masses from the East" (Jews, Gypsies, Poles, Slavs, Russians, Serbs, Ukrainians, etc.).
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.
Nazis promise this. Volksgeist is the national spirit. They want a racial state. Racial principles with a state built on racial principles.
Proposed during holocaust to congress in place of immigration laws to allow 20,000 Jews to immigrate into U.S. to escape concentration camps— Bill Failed to pass through congress
Held in Berlin in 1942; purpose was to inform senior Nazis and governmental administrators of plans for the "final solution to the Jewish question"
An area of Warsaw sealed off by the Nazis to confine the Jewish population, forcing them into poor, unsanitary conditions, the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II
The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
White Rose Movement
An attempt by a small group of students and one professor at the University of Munich to distribute pamphlets denouncing the Nazi regime as lawless, criminal, and godless. Members were arrested and executed.
NOUN a language used by Jews in central and eastern Europe before the Holocaust. It was originally a German dialect with words from Hebrew and several modern languages and is today spoken mainly in the US, Israel, and Russia
Jewish "Day of Atonement"
Chemical pesticide that was used to exterminate jews in gas chambers
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