Praxis II:0011/5011

Behaviorism X
Behavior can be pridicted and controlled. B.F. Skinner focused on studying stimulus and response paired with reinforcement. Failed to consider individual needs and motivations.
6 stages of development
sensorimotor baby-2 simple reflexes- organized behaviors
stage 2 preoperational period 2-7 physically based responses - using symbols
concerte operational period 7-11 the child's acquisition of logic
formal operational period 11-15 hypothetical thinking
based his ideas on Fred 3-5 initiative vs guilt starts to initiate behaviors, devel conscience, and sexual id
6-12 industry vs. inferiority develops self worth
Lev Vygotsky
child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral reasion at which judgment about right and wrong are pretty much a matter of expediency
Carol Gilligan
moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
Jerome Bruner
Theories:"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
Carl Jung
2 Perceiving function Sensing (people who make decisions based on rational, logical, and objective data) and intuition ( Those who make decisions based on how they may affect others avoiding conflict and promoting harmony)
Bloom's Taxonomy
Remembering- long term memory
understanding- is able to explain the info presented
Apply- uses info to complete a task
Analyze-recognizes the overall purpose of info (correlates)
Evaluate- make judgements based on criteria (appraises)
Creates- puts elements together to form a coherent whole
thinking about thinking
wait time
3-5 secs
formative evaluation
monitoring progress while it is still possible to modify instruction
sumative evaluation
occurs at the end of a course of study
informal assessment
observations & checklist
formal assessments
projects. papers, and portfolios rubrics essays tests
Performance-based assessments
ex: a lab experiment
authentic assessments
projects, anecdotal, portfolios
criterion-referenced tests
students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested
Norm-reference test
compare an students performance to others
should produce "Bell curve" scores
percentile scores
the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.
raw scores
how many questions the student answered correctly -used to find the percentage score
normed scores
the test developers used a normed group
the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time
does the test measure what it claims to measure
Marie Clay
emergent literacy- the stage during which children begin to receive formal instruction in reading and writing and the point at which educators and adults expect them to begin developing an understanding of print. 0-5
Concepts of print
Parts of a book, directionality of print, & voice to print match,
speech sounds 44 in English
written symbols for speech sounds
Neurological impress method
Heckleman sit behind the child pointing to words as you read the words together 1. deve fluency 2. impress the words in the child's memory 3 fosters correct phraseing 4 builds confidence 5 povides immediate feedback 6 it is pleasent
structural Analysis
breaking words into parts or syllables
syntactic cues
grammatical sentence structure
semantic cues
context clues, hints based on meaning that help readers understand text
reading strategies
activating prior knowledge
drawing infernces
determining important ideas
repairing information- stopping to clarify ideas
using the parts of the book
literal level of comprehension
understanding exactly what is on the page- lowest level
authentic reading
ex: reading a recipe
interpretive level of reading
figuring out the author's purpose, main idea, essental message, & point of view
critical level of comprehension
checking the author's reputation and responding emotionally
creative level of comprehension
making judgments about actions to take
assessing comprehension
questions may be convergent- one answer answer is correct or divergent- more than one answer is correct
the SQ3R
survey- breif overview of the text look at charts chapter titles
question- devise some questions that the chapter will probably answer
recite- answer the questions
Purpose- guide your own reading
organize- make an outline
vocabulary- learn new words
evaluate- determine if you achieved your purpose
close test for reading comp
60%- independent reading level
40%-60%- instructional reading level
below 40%- frustration level
Process guide
the teacher develops specific helps for a section of the text that the students are going to read that the teacher thinks might cause some confussion ex: a list of key terms
writing development
learning to write is an important part of learning to read
Luria's stages in writing
1 undifferentiated stage- 3-5 marks seem random to the child
2 differentiated stage- the child reps short words with shorter marks
3 pictographic stage 4-6
process writing
prewriting- collecting info
composing- sloppy copy
revising stage- writers improve wording
editing- correct their own work and the work of others
rewriting stage
running record
assess the student's word-identification skills and fluency in oral reading
Deductive reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
mastery lecture
the mode of instruction in collage classes
inductive reasoning
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
teaching deductively
the teacher gives the students the rule first and then practices it
teaching inductively
the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves
inquiry lessons
start with a thought provoking question
adaptive thinking
the capacity to think logically about the relationships between concepts and situations
the key to converting word problems into math problems with the choice of operations being crucial to sucess
a collection of things real or imagined related or unrelated
base 10 place value scheme
as we move to the left in any number each place value is 10 times the place value to the right ex: 543 (5 X [10X10] ) + (4 X [10X1] ) + (3X1)
or (5 X 10 to the 2 power) + (4 X 10 to the 1st) +3 X 10 to the 0
modeling the operations
concerte method- working with real objects
semiconcrete- the students work with visual reps
semiabstract method-the students work with a symbol (tally marks) to represent objects
the first number in a multiplication problem is the vertical rep the 2nd number is horizontal
the multiples of 7 are 14 21 28 etc
two numbers are reciprocals if their product is 1
ex 8 X 1/8 = 1
associative property for addition and multiplication
3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference
distributive property of addition and multiplication
6 X 47 is the same as (6X40) + (6X7)
natural numbers
The set of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Also called counting numbers.
are any number or symbols in math that when multiplied together form a product the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12
prime numbers
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17
composite numbers
composed of several whole number factors
ex 7- 7, 14, 21, 28
measurement Division
ex 400 pennies and each person gets 5 how many people can get pennies
partitive dividion
8 cookies and 4 kids how many cookies does each kid get
rational numbers
any number that can be expressed as a fraction
Whole numbers and their opposites
the fraction 1/4 can not be expressed as a integer their are more fractions than whole numbers between every integer there is a fraction
decimal numbers
all decimals are actually fractions to change a fraction into a decimal divide the numerator by the denominator
irrational numbers
numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0.
rational numbers
numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers
real numbers
all the numbers that can be represented by points on the number line
any decimal number can be converted to a percent by shifting the decimal point two places to the right and adding the %.135 becomes 13.5%
converting percents to fractions
put the percent over 100 and reduce the fraction 20% 20/100 is 1/5
ratio notation
an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5
an equation stating that two ratios are equal ex 2/5 = N/10
two angles are adjacent if
they share a common vertex, they share only one side, and one angle does not lie in the interior of the other
complementary angles
if the sum of the measure of 2 angles is 90
if the sum of the measure of 2 angles is 180
consecutive interior angles
interior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal
alternate interior angles
interior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal
consecutive exterior angles
exterior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal
alternate exterior angles
exterior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal have have the same degree measurement
corresponding angles
An interior angle and an exterior angle that have different vertices and have sides on the same side of the transversal
if the measures of two angles are the same the angles are congruent
the sum of the measures of the 3 angles of any triangle is 180
Pythagorean theorem
States that in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.
width times length times height
length x width, the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface
a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides
regular polygon
a polygon with all sides and all angles equal
a quadrilateral (a four sides figure) in which sides opposite each other are both of equal length and parallel a square is a rectangle
regular triangle
the area of a triangle is the product of half its base multiplied by its height
congruent polygons
the same size and shape
similar polygons
the same shape but different sizes corresponding angles of similar figures have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional
a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps
a linear transformation that enlarges or reduces an object
coordinate plane
divided into four quadrants by an x (horizontal) y (vertical) axis the upper right quad is I and the others moving counterclockwise are II III and IV
ordered pairs
indicate the locations of points on the plane (-3, 4) describes a point that is 3 units left from the center of the plane and four up
measures of centeral tendency
mean- the average of the numbers
median- the middle number when the vaules are in order
mode-the value occurring most often
range- the largest number- the smallest number
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events
problem solving strategies
estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)
guess and check
draw a picture
make a table or a chart
act it out
look ofr patterns
simplify the numbers
work backwards
expanding horizon approach or the widening horizon curriculum
Based on the original belief that children learn about their environment in gradually expanding concentric circles this type of curriculum begins with what the children supposedly already know and moves outward.
typical topics for socail studies in each grade
K-1 family home school
2 community
3 state history and geography, holidays and history of the united states
4 regions of the world or state history and geography
5 american history and geography
6 world history and geography
7 state history and U.S. history
8 civics american history
systematic inquiry
the ability to acquire information from a variety of sources and to organize and interpret that information. It begins with designing and conducting investigations
primary sources
diaries, ledger, oral histories, aritifacts, and census reports
secoundary sources
textbooks and encyclopedias
the five themes of geography
location- absolute loctation longitude and latitude
relative location-how a location effects the
human/ environmental interaction-how people effect the
movement and connections-transporation
and regions, patterns, and process- students can study
an areas uniqueness
Geologic maps
show the arrangement of rock types on the Earth's surface used for exploration
or longitude- lines running from pole to pole 360 of them surround the earth in 1 degree increments
or latitude- lines that run east to west
physical geography
locating and describing places according to physical features
cultural geography
focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.
three generalizations of geography that relate the past and human concerns to places
physical factors and cultural factors are related ex the physical enviornment affects the types of houses people build
change is constant
people modify the environments they inhabit
Paleolithic period
also called the stone age 2.5 million years ago 10,000 B.C. people lived in small groupsof perhaps 10 to 20 nomadic people
reasons for people moving
cultural reasons- moving to live with others who are more similar to them
physical reasons- people may need to satisfy a phsical need or bring a needed reasource to another area
political reasons- people may be unhappy with the government or be attracted to a system of government
forces students to make an analogy between two concepts one familar and the other new ex comparing a cell to a city government
types of anthropologist
Primatologist- study the group behavior of primates
ethnographers- gather information about culture through feild work
linguistic anthropologists- study lang in socail context
physical or biological anthropologists- study humans and primates both living and fossil
scientific method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
scientific method steps
1) Identify the problem
2) Research the problem
3) Formulate a hypothesis
4) test the hypothesis (experimenting)
5) accept/reject the hypothesis (interpret the results
6) Report/share the results
significant figures
A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement
the act of sensing some measurable phenomenon
relating parts to a coherent whole
testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment
ex you can infer that a classroom of 30 students has 16 girls if you know that there are 14 boys.
stating the outcome of an experiment in advance of doing it
In planning and conducting an experiment the scientist must
1 id relevant variables
2 id equipment needed
3 eliminate or suppress any factors that could influence measured variables
4 decide on a means of analyizing the data obtained
testible questions
must id specific variables
be measurable
and controlable (repeatable)
data representation- graphical form
raw data is plotted
the independent (contolled) variable is usually displayed on the x-axis(horizontal)
the dependent variable is ussually displayed on the y axis
an inquiry lesson
starts with a thought provoking question
gathering information from a variety of sources and organize and interpret that information
uses inductive teaching
inductive science lessons
students study, conduct, research, collect and analyze data and then develop generalizations and rules based on their findings
students take responsiblity for their own learning by planning, carrying out, and presenting research and projects
the axis of the Earth is tited at
a 23.5 degree angle and it always points toward the north star
summer begins in the Northern hemisphere on
June 21
winter begins in the Northern hemisphere on
December 22
when it is summer in the Northern hemisphere it is
winter in the southern hemisphere
vernal equinox
days and nights of equal duration march 21
autumnal equinox
days and nights of equal duration september 23
solid iron and nickel
about 7,000 kilometers in diameter
the semi-molten layer between the crust and the core
3,000 kilometers thick
the solid outermost layer composed of bedrock overlaid with mineral and organic sediment ranging from 5 to 40 kilometers thick
plate tectonics
the study of the movement of the earth's large lithospheric plates
cracks in the crust and are the results of the movements of plates
mountains that form when two plates move away from one another to let magma reach the crust
molten rock on the Earth's surface
seafloor spreading
the creation of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges and movement of the crust away from the mid-ocean ridges
evidence of continental drift and the underlying plate tectonics
continents look as though they should fit together like a puzzle
smiliar fossils appear on the edges of continents
seismic volcanic and geothermal activity occurs more frequently along plate boundaries than in sites far from boundaries
mountain ranges and ridges are forming where plates are pushing against each other
everything that has mass and volume
light is not matter because it does not take up space
is the amount of matter in a object
the amount of space an object occupies
a measure of the force of gravity on an object
the force of gravity is proportional to
the product of the masses of the two ojects divided by the square of the distance between them
the ratio of mass to volume it depends on the type of matter not the amount of matter
objects sink in liquids or gases alike if they are denser than the material that surrounds them
chemical reaction
compounds can break apart, combine, or recombine to form new compounds
classifications of matter
elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions
consists of only one type of atom
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight ex: water H2O
made up of one or more types of molecules not chemically combined and without any definite weight proportions
homogeneous mixture- with evenly distributed substances ex saltwater
required activities of living things
food getting, respiration, excretion, growth, repair, movemwnt, response, secretion, & reproduction -living things must perform all of these functions
a cell is the smallest component that can by itself be considered living
cells are made up of
smaller structures called organelles wich are surrounded by cell fuild or cytoplasm
cell membrane
controls movement of materials into and out of cells
cell wall
gives rigid structure to plant cells
jellylike substance inside a cell
liberates energy from glucose in cells for use in cellular activities
directs cel activities holds DNA
makes proteins from amino acids
stores materials in a cell
the flow of chemicals from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
particals that are to large to be passed through the cell membrane may be engolfed by the cell membrane and stored in vacuoles until they can be digested
carry out photosynthesis in green cells
the pigment found in chloroplasts that catalyzes the photosynthetic reaction that turns carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen
the exchange of gases in living things or the release of energy from sugars for use in life activities
all living things get their energy
from the digestion of glucose
respiration may occur with
oxygen or without oxygen
asexual reproduction takes places either by
fragmentation ex: growing new plants from cuttings or by special asexual structures- invovles seeds produced by a male and female
a sufficient amount of water is absorbed by the seed precipitating biochemical changes that initiate cell division
group of the same kind of cells is a
a group of the smae kind of tissue working together
skeletal system
composed of bones cartilage and ligaments
3 types of muscles
striated- voluntary
2 divisions of the nervous system
the somatic- allowing voluntary control over seletal muscles
autonomic- controlling cardiac and glandular functions
3 types of nerve receptors
exteroceptors- pain temp touch & pressure
interoceptors- internal
proprioceptors- movement position and tension
immune system
lymphocytes and antibody molecules are generated to destroy the invador molecules
nitrogen cycle
the amount of nitrogen in the air ramins constant becausebacteria in the soil and in the roots of legumes change the nitrogen in the air into nitrogen that plants can use