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Behaviorism X

Behavior can be pridicted and controlled. B.F. Skinner focused on studying stimulus and response paired with reinforcement. Failed to consider individual needs and motivations.


6 stages of development
sensorimotor baby-2 simple reflexes- organized behaviors
stage 2 preoperational period 2-7 physically based responses - using symbols
concerte operational period 7-11 the child's acquisition of logic
formal operational period 11-15 hypothetical thinking


based his ideas on Fred 3-5 initiative vs guilt starts to initiate behaviors, devel conscience, and sexual id
6-12 industry vs. inferiority develops self worth

Lev Vygotsky

child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research

Lawrence Kohlberg

moral reasion at which judgment about right and wrong are pretty much a matter of expediency

Carol Gilligan

moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse

Jerome Bruner

Theories:"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.

Carl Jung

2 Perceiving function Sensing (people who make decisions based on rational, logical, and objective data) and intuition ( Those who make decisions based on how they may affect others avoiding conflict and promoting harmony)

Bloom's Taxonomy

Remembering- long term memory
understanding- is able to explain the info presented
Apply- uses info to complete a task
Analyze-recognizes the overall purpose of info (correlates)
Evaluate- make judgements based on criteria (appraises)
Creates- puts elements together to form a coherent whole


thinking about thinking

wait time

3-5 secs

formative evaluation

monitoring progress while it is still possible to modify instruction

sumative evaluation

occurs at the end of a course of study

informal assessment

observations & checklist

formal assessments

projects. papers, and portfolios rubrics essays tests

Performance-based assessments

ex: a lab experiment

authentic assessments

projects, anecdotal, portfolios

criterion-referenced tests

students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested

Norm-reference test

compare an students performance to others
should produce "Bell curve" scores

percentile scores

the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.

raw scores

how many questions the student answered correctly -used to find the percentage score

normed scores

the test developers used a normed group


the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time


does the test measure what it claims to measure

Marie Clay

emergent literacy- the stage during which children begin to receive formal instruction in reading and writing and the point at which educators and adults expect them to begin developing an understanding of print. 0-5

Concepts of print

Parts of a book, directionality of print, & voice to print match,


speech sounds 44 in English


written symbols for speech sounds

Neurological impress method

Heckleman sit behind the child pointing to words as you read the words together 1. deve fluency 2. impress the words in the child's memory 3 fosters correct phraseing 4 builds confidence 5 povides immediate feedback 6 it is pleasent

structural Analysis

breaking words into parts or syllables

syntactic cues

grammatical sentence structure

semantic cues

context clues, hints based on meaning that help readers understand text

reading strategies

activating prior knowledge
drawing infernces
determining important ideas
repairing information- stopping to clarify ideas
using the parts of the book

literal level of comprehension

understanding exactly what is on the page- lowest level

authentic reading

ex: reading a recipe

interpretive level of reading

figuring out the author's purpose, main idea, essental message, & point of view

critical level of comprehension

checking the author's reputation and responding emotionally

creative level of comprehension

making judgments about actions to take

assessing comprehension

questions may be convergent- one answer answer is correct or divergent- more than one answer is correct

the SQ3R

survey- breif overview of the text look at charts chapter titles
question- devise some questions that the chapter will probably answer
recite- answer the questions


Purpose- guide your own reading
organize- make an outline
vocabulary- learn new words
evaluate- determine if you achieved your purpose

close test for reading comp

60%- independent reading level
40%-60%- instructional reading level
below 40%- frustration level

Process guide

the teacher develops specific helps for a section of the text that the students are going to read that the teacher thinks might cause some confussion ex: a list of key terms

writing development

learning to write is an important part of learning to read

Luria's stages in writing

1 undifferentiated stage- 3-5 marks seem random to the child
2 differentiated stage- the child reps short words with shorter marks
3 pictographic stage 4-6

process writing

prewriting- collecting info
composing- sloppy copy
revising stage- writers improve wording
editing- correct their own work and the work of others
rewriting stage

running record

assess the student's word-identification skills and fluency in oral reading

Deductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)

mastery lecture

the mode of instruction in collage classes

inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

teaching deductively

the teacher gives the students the rule first and then practices it

teaching inductively

the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves

inquiry lessons

start with a thought provoking question

adaptive thinking

the capacity to think logically about the relationships between concepts and situations


the key to converting word problems into math problems with the choice of operations being crucial to sucess


a collection of things real or imagined related or unrelated

base 10 place value scheme

as we move to the left in any number each place value is 10 times the place value to the right ex: 543 (5 X [10X10] ) + (4 X [10X1] ) + (3X1)
or (5 X 10 to the 2 power) + (4 X 10 to the 1st) +3 X 10 to the 0

modeling the operations

concerte method- working with real objects
semiconcrete- the students work with visual reps
semiabstract method-the students work with a symbol (tally marks) to represent objects


the first number in a multiplication problem is the vertical rep the 2nd number is horizontal


the multiples of 7 are 14 21 28 etc


two numbers are reciprocals if their product is 1
ex 8 X 1/8 = 1

associative property for addition and multiplication

3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference

distributive property of addition and multiplication

6 X 47 is the same as (6X40) + (6X7)

natural numbers

The set of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Also called counting numbers.


are any number or symbols in math that when multiplied together form a product the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12

prime numbers

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17

composite numbers

composed of several whole number factors


ex 7- 7, 14, 21, 28

measurement Division

ex 400 pennies and each person gets 5 how many people can get pennies

partitive dividion

8 cookies and 4 kids how many cookies does each kid get

rational numbers

any number that can be expressed as a fraction


Whole numbers and their opposites


the fraction 1/4 can not be expressed as a integer their are more fractions than whole numbers between every integer there is a fraction

decimal numbers

all decimals are actually fractions to change a fraction into a decimal divide the numerator by the denominator

irrational numbers

numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0.

rational numbers

numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers

real numbers

all the numbers that can be represented by points on the number line


any decimal number can be converted to a percent by shifting the decimal point two places to the right and adding the %.135 becomes 13.5%

converting percents to fractions

put the percent over 100 and reduce the fraction 20% 20/100 is 1/5

ratio notation

an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5


an equation stating that two ratios are equal ex 2/5 = N/10

two angles are adjacent if

they share a common vertex, they share only one side, and one angle does not lie in the interior of the other

complementary angles

if the sum of the measure of 2 angles is 90


if the sum of the measure of 2 angles is 180

consecutive interior angles

interior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal

alternate interior angles

interior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal

consecutive exterior angles

exterior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal

alternate exterior angles

exterior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal have have the same degree measurement

corresponding angles

An interior angle and an exterior angle that have different vertices and have sides on the same side of the transversal


if the measures of two angles are the same the angles are congruent


the sum of the measures of the 3 angles of any triangle is 180

Pythagorean theorem

States that in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.


width times length times height


length x width, the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface


a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides

regular polygon

a polygon with all sides and all angles equal


a quadrilateral (a four sides figure) in which sides opposite each other are both of equal length and parallel a square is a rectangle

regular triangle

the area of a triangle is the product of half its base multiplied by its height

congruent polygons

the same size and shape

similar polygons

the same shape but different sizes corresponding angles of similar figures have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional


a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps


a linear transformation that enlarges or reduces an object

coordinate plane

divided into four quadrants by an x (horizontal) y (vertical) axis the upper right quad is I and the others moving counterclockwise are II III and IV

ordered pairs

indicate the locations of points on the plane (-3, 4) describes a point that is 3 units left from the center of the plane and four up

measures of centeral tendency

mean- the average of the numbers
median- the middle number when the vaules are in order
mode-the value occurring most often
range- the largest number- the smallest number


a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events

problem solving strategies

estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)
guess and check
draw a picture
make a table or a chart
act it out
look ofr patterns
simplify the numbers
work backwards

expanding horizon approach or the widening horizon curriculum

Based on the original belief that children learn about their environment in gradually expanding concentric circles this type of curriculum begins with what the children supposedly already know and moves outward.

typical topics for socail studies in each grade

K-1 family home school
2 community
3 state history and geography, holidays and history of the united states
4 regions of the world or state history and geography
5 american history and geography
6 world history and geography
7 state history and U.S. history
8 civics american history

systematic inquiry

the ability to acquire information from a variety of sources and to organize and interpret that information. It begins with designing and conducting investigations

primary sources

diaries, ledger, oral histories, aritifacts, and census reports

secoundary sources

textbooks and encyclopedias

the five themes of geography

location- absolute loctation longitude and latitude
relative location-how a location effects the
human/ environmental interaction-how people effect the
movement and connections-transporation
and regions, patterns, and process- students can study
an areas uniqueness

Geologic maps

show the arrangement of rock types on the Earth's surface used for exploration


or longitude- lines running from pole to pole 360 of them surround the earth in 1 degree increments


or latitude- lines that run east to west

physical geography

locating and describing places according to physical features

cultural geography

focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.

three generalizations of geography that relate the past and human concerns to places

physical factors and cultural factors are related ex the physical enviornment affects the types of houses people build
change is constant
people modify the environments they inhabit

Paleolithic period

also called the stone age 2.5 million years ago 10,000 B.C. people lived in small groupsof perhaps 10 to 20 nomadic people

reasons for people moving

cultural reasons- moving to live with others who are more similar to them
physical reasons- people may need to satisfy a phsical need or bring a needed reasource to another area
political reasons- people may be unhappy with the government or be attracted to a system of government


forces students to make an analogy between two concepts one familar and the other new ex comparing a cell to a city government

types of anthropologist

Primatologist- study the group behavior of primates
ethnographers- gather information about culture through feild work
linguistic anthropologists- study lang in socail context
physical or biological anthropologists- study humans and primates both living and fossil

scientific method

a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

scientific method steps

1) Identify the problem
2) Research the problem
3) Formulate a hypothesis
4) test the hypothesis (experimenting)
5) accept/reject the hypothesis (interpret the results
6) Report/share the results

significant figures

A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement


the act of sensing some measurable phenomenon


relating parts to a coherent whole


testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment


ex you can infer that a classroom of 30 students has 16 girls if you know that there are 14 boys.


stating the outcome of an experiment in advance of doing it

In planning and conducting an experiment the scientist must

1 id relevant variables
2 id equipment needed
3 eliminate or suppress any factors that could influence measured variables
4 decide on a means of analyizing the data obtained

testible questions

must id specific variables
be measurable
and controlable (repeatable)

data representation- graphical form

raw data is plotted
the independent (contolled) variable is usually displayed on the x-axis(horizontal)
the dependent variable is ussually displayed on the y axis

an inquiry lesson

starts with a thought provoking question
gathering information from a variety of sources and organize and interpret that information
uses inductive teaching

inductive science lessons

students study, conduct, research, collect and analyze data and then develop generalizations and rules based on their findings
students take responsiblity for their own learning by planning, carrying out, and presenting research and projects

the axis of the Earth is tited at

a 23.5 degree angle and it always points toward the north star

summer begins in the Northern hemisphere on

June 21

winter begins in the Northern hemisphere on

December 22

when it is summer in the Northern hemisphere it is

winter in the southern hemisphere

vernal equinox

days and nights of equal duration march 21

autumnal equinox

days and nights of equal duration september 23


solid iron and nickel
about 7,000 kilometers in diameter


the semi-molten layer between the crust and the core
3,000 kilometers thick


the solid outermost layer composed of bedrock overlaid with mineral and organic sediment ranging from 5 to 40 kilometers thick

plate tectonics

the study of the movement of the earth's large lithospheric plates


cracks in the crust and are the results of the movements of plates


mountains that form when two plates move away from one another to let magma reach the crust


molten rock on the Earth's surface

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