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Gross Anatomy II
Spinal Cord and Nerves
Terms in this set (50)
Where does the spinal cord begin superiorly?
at the foramen magnum (continuous with the medulla oblongata)
Where does the Spinal cord end inferiorly?
at the level of the L1/L2 intervertebral disc
What does the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord give rise to? where is it located?
C5 to T1
What does the Lumbosacral (lumbar) enlargement of the spinal cord give rise to? where is it located?
lumbar and sacral plexuses (innervation of the lower limbs)
extend from L1 to S3
What is the inferior extent of the spinal cord called (where it tapers off in a cone shape)? what is the filament called that runs from here to the coccyx(and stabilizes the cord)?
the spinal nerve roots that extend inferiorly below the conus medullaris are called what?
Why does the inferior end of the spinal cord not extend the entire length of the vertebral canal? what is the result of this?
beginning in the third month of development, the vertebral column begins lenghening faster than the spinal cord
the spinal nerve roots elongate to make up the difference
what is the anterior median fissure and where is it located?
it is a deep grove along the anterior midline of the spinal cord and contains anterior spinal vessels (providing blood and nerve supply to cord)
where is the posterior median sulcus and why is it called a sulcus and not a fissure?
it is the shallow groove along the posterior midline.
it is called a sulcus because it is too shallow to be called a fissure
what is the anterolateral sulcus?
it is the attachment area of the rootlets of the anterior roots of the spinal nerves
what is the posterolateral sulcus
the attachment area of the rootlets of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves
where is the posterior intermediate sulcus located? in what sections of the spinal cord?
between the posterior median sulcus and the posterolateral sulcus
present only in the cervical and upper thoracic regions
what is the central canal responsible for? where is it located? what type of cells line this canal and what are they responsible for?
the central canal communicates with the ventricular system of the brain (4th ventricle)
it is located in a narrow cavity in the center of spinal cord
it is lined by ependymal cells, which also produce the tissue layer surrounding the brain as well as the CSF
where is the gray matter and white matter located in the spinal cord?
what are the four regions of the gray matter
Nerves entering from where go through the posterior horn? what kind of information are they carrying? where does this information go after the posterior horn?
nerves entering through the posterior roots
carrying sensory information
the neurons have axons that ascend in the white matter to the brain projecting the sensory information
the anterior horn contains neurons that have axons that leave through where? what are these axons functions?
the anterior horn carries axons away from the spinal cord that leave through the anterior roots to supply skeletal muscle fibers
somatic motor neurons involved with voluntary movements
which direction is the information being carried in the posterior horn?anterior horn?
(i.e. from brain out to body, or from body up to brain)
posterior horn- sensory information is being carried through the axons in the body to the spinal cord, and up to the brain
anterior horn- motor information is being carried from brain to spinal cord and out to body
which horn (anterior or posterior) are large in the cervical and lumbosacral enlargements? why?
anterior horn because it contains the motor neurons for the muscles of the limbs
the lateral horn houses the intermediolataeral nucleus in what region of the spine? what is the neuron responsible for?
they are preganglionic symapthetic neurons that are responsible for mediating the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
the intermediate zone of the gray matter consists of what?
interneurons (neurons that are small and locally projected) for segmental and intersegmental integration of spinal functions
the white matter of the spinal cord is made up of what three regions?
posterior (dorsal) funiculus
anterior (ventral) funiculus
white matter carries axons to the brain containing what type of information? where did these axons come from?
from the posterior horn of the gray matter
what fuses to from the spinal nerves?
anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) roots
the anterior (ventral) roots carry what type of information where?
efferent, motor fibers away from the spinal cord and out to the body
the posterior (dorsal) roots carry what type of information where?
afferent sensory fibers toward the spinal cord, to the posterior root, then the white matter and finally up to the brain
what is afferent? efferent?
afferent-carrying something towards the center
efferent- carrying something away from the center
what does the posterior ganglion contain and where is it located?
contains the cell bodies of the sensory neurons located along the posterior root prior to the spinal nerve (where dorsal and ventral root combine)
spinal nerves contain what two types of fibers?
sensory and motor
after exiting the vertebral canal, the spinal nerves divide into two branches each containing what
a sensory and motor fiber
the posterior ramus of the spinal nerve innervates what
is smaller and innervates the skin and deep muscles of the back of that segment of the spine
the anterior ramus innervates what
skin and muscles of limbs and anterolateral trunk as well as superficial muscles of the back
how many pairs of spinal nerves are their? cervical? thoracic? lumbar? sacral? coccygeal
C1-C7 spinal nerves exit superiorly or inferiorly to the vertabra for which they are named?
where does C8 exit?
between C7 and T1
spinal nerves starting form the thoracic region down exit superiorly or inferiorly from the vertabra for which they are named?
sympathetic nervous system gets axons from which horn?
what is a dermatome? what type of nerves innervate these areas?
an area of skin innervated by the sensory fibers of a given spinal nerve
cutaneous nerves usually containing sensory fibers from more than one spinal nerve
what three connective tissue membranes make up the meninges of the spinal cord?
describe the dura mater. what else it reffered to as?
a dense, strong fibrous sheet that forms a LOOSE sac around the spinal cord and cauda equina
what is the upper and lower part of the filum terminale referred to as? why?
the upper part is within the dural sac so it is called the filum terminal internum
the lower part passes out of the dural sac and continues to the coccyx and is called the filum terminal externum or coccygeal ligament
what is the space called between the dura mater and vertabrae? what does this space house?
the internal vertebral venous plexus
what is the epineurium?
connective tissue convering of a nerve
where does the dura mater and epineurium fuse and why?
at the intervertebral foramen because the dura mater forms a sleeve around the roots of each spinal nerve
what is the arachnoid mater? subdural space?
delicate membrane that lines the internal surface of the dura mater and extends the full length of th edural sac
the subdural space is potential space between dura mater and arachnoid
what is the subarachnoid space? what does it contain? where does it extend to inferiorly?
the space between the arachnoid and pia mater. it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid adn extends inferiorly to the S2 vertebral level
what does the lumber cistern refer to?
the part of the subarachnoid space inferior to the conus medullaris. it is filled with CSF
what is a lumbar puncture aka spinal tap (LP)?
introduction of a needle into the lumbar cistern, usually between L3/L4 and L4/L5 vertebral arches to obtain a CSF sample
what is the pia mater
vascular membrane that intimately follows the surface of the spinal cord and nerve roots within the arachnoid
what is the denticulate ligament? where is it located?
it is an extension of the pia mater located at the lateral edges of the spinal cord between the anterior and posterior roots. it extends across teh subarachnoid space and attaches laterallhy to the dura mater by 20-21 tooth like projections (denticulations) that penetrate the arachnoid.
it stablizes the spinal cord to the dural sac
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