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Partial or complete removal of a limb.


Puncture of a joint space to remove accumulated fluid.


Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement.


Visual examination of a joint, especially the kneww; used primarily to detect trauma or lesions and to obtain a biopsy of synovial tissue. Synovial biopsy may also be obtained by needle or surgical incision.

Bone grafting

Implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue.


Excision of bursa (a padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints).

Closed reduction

Treatment of bone fractures by placingthe bones i proper positin (i.e. reducing the fragments without surgery).


Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra; most often performed to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured intervertebral (slipped) disk.

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