AP Human Geography Unit 5 Agriculture Food Production and Rural Land Use
Terms in this set (44)
characteristic of farmers or their way of life
highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership
the cultural landscape of agricultural areas
Agriculture location model
deals with both the location & allocation process of land uses by farmers, and the spatial organization of agricultural land uses. The major term in its classical versions is economic rent relating to some form of surplus. Von Thünen's theory emphasized distance from farm to market as well as transport costs, yield, market prices, and production costs as rent determinants. Modern versions of the theory provided simple models which relate explicitly to transportation costs. The theory has been criticized mainly for its many limiting assumptions.
the cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals
animals kept for some utilitarian purpose whose breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is dependedent on humans; differ genetically and behaviorally from wild animals.
the cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food
means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.
regards a system of agricultural organization whereas farm laborers are not compensated via wages. Rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity. The Soviet Union undertook the world's first campaign of mass collectivization from 1929-1933.
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity
use of little labor and capital to increase agricultural productivity
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or certain other lactating livestock for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed onsite or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale.
an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors. Many developing nations are severely limited by huge debts they have accrued. In a debt for nature swap, creditors agree to forgive all debts in return for the promise of environmental protection. First established in the 1980s in the attempt of solving two problems with one agreement: 1) minimize the negative effect debt has on developing nations 2) minimize the environmental destruction that developing nations frequently cause. The environmental promises made in such debt for nature swaps have centered around the promised protection of large areas of land such as tropical rain forests. The first case of this sort of agreement came in 1987 between a conservation group and Bolivia. The conservation group paid some of Bolivia's debt in return for the creation of a large rainforest preserve
a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested
the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining
changes made to the environment. e.g., the use of pesticides to grow crops and the effects it has on the soil and the environment; soil erosion and desertification caused by changes made to the environment
Shifting cultivation (slash and burn)
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. the clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forest land. Also known as slash-and-burn agriculture.
a crop-growing system in the Yucatán peninsula area of Mexico. The word is borrowed from the Aztec, meaning "field". Based on ancient Mayan agricultural methods, it produces maize, beans, lima beans and squash. The cycle calls for 2 years of cultivation and eight years of letting the area lie fallow. Agronomists believe that, at current levels of consumption, the system is self-sustaining
a patch of land cleared for planting thorough slashing and burning.
Nomadic herding/ pastoralism
the continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals
a factory like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying; all feed is imported and no crops are gown on the farm.
First agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community
the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources
the recent introduction of high-yield hybrid crops and chemical fertilizers and pesticides into traditional Asian agricultural systems, most notably paddy rice farming, with attendant increases in production and ecological damage
the period of each year when crops can be grown. It is usually determined by climate and crop selection. Depending on the location, temperature, daylight hours (photo period), and rainfall, may all be critical environmental factors
Hunting and gathering
the killing of wild game and the harvesting of wild plants to provide food in traditional cultures
Intensive subsistence agriculture
farming to supply the minimum food and materials necessary to survive
a commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat
the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. It is distinguishable from other types of farming by the diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, typically, from under one acre (4,000 m?) to a few acres, or sometimes in greenhouses
Fossil Fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals
Paddy rice farming
the cultivation of rice on a paddy, or small flooded field enclosed by mud dikes practiced in the humid areas of the Far East
deliberately planted and tended by humans that is genetically distinct from its wild ancestors as a result of selective breeding
a system of monoculture for producing export crops requiring relatively large amounts of land and capital; originally dependent on slave labor
Second agricultural revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, it witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
Distinct regional approach to land surveying found in Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas where by land is dived into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, and canals.
Metes and bounds
a system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of this surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior, also called rectangular survey system.
Third agricultural revolution (mechanization, chemical farming, food manufacturing)
Currently in progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
"Tragedy of the commons"
class of social trap that involve a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. The term derives originally from a parable published by William Forster Lloyd in his 1833 book on population
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because the word was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
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