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McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Cheif Justice John Marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interferer
Adams-Onis Treaty
In 1819, It was a treaty between Spain and the US that gave Florida to the US and set a boundary between the two nations in what is now Mexico. It came within tensions of the two nations.
Missouri Compromise
In 1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
First Lowell Factory
In 1823, Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
Monroe Doctrine
In 1823, Written by John Q. Adams, this doctrine stated that Europeans could not intervene in the Western Hemisphere in exchange, the U.S. would not interfere with existing European colonies and wars. If Europe intervened, the U.S. would interpret this as dangerous to U.S. national security and take appropriate action.
Election of 1824
In 1824, No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Indian Removal Act
In 1830, Enacted by Andrew Jackson, this act forced the removal of the five civilized tribes west of the Mississippi river
Maysville Road Veto
In 1830, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company. Jackson stated that federal funding of intrastate projects was unconstitutional
Nat Turner's Revolt
In 1831, a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55-65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the South. The US government created harsher laws against the blacks after this and barred them from education
Nullification Crisis
In 1832-1833, a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina
Jackson Destroyed Bank of the U.S.
In 1833-1836, During Jackson's term, he used his executive power to remove all federal funds from the bank and vetoed the rechartering of the bank. This was part of his bank war
Panic of 1837
In 1837, a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up after several years of american economic prosperity. This was caused by the high speculation of the era and the economic policies of Jackson to destroy the national bank.
Horace Mann began school reform in Massach
After appointed to the board of education of Massachusetts, he advocated for Universal education in the United States, thus making him a favorite of the American Party and the Whig Party. He built and regulated public schools and created normal schools to train teachers.
Trail Of Tears
In 1838, The land and water route used by the US government to forcefully remove thousands of Cherokee Indians from their homes between Georgia and Oklahoma. Along the way, over 4,000 Indians died.
Election of 1840
In 1840, In this election, Van Buren ran against William Henry Harrison. William appealed to the Wave of Democracy by presenting himself as a common man, and he was elected. However, he soon died of pneumonia and John Tyler became president instead.
"Manifest Destiny" first used In 1845
a widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent and were supported by a divine spirit (god). This ideology influenced the American acquisition of land from Mexico and the Indians and their settlement towards the coast of the Pacific Ocean
Annexation of Texas In 1845,
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits
Mexican-American War In 1846-1848
, The U.S. annexed Texas and sought to acquire the California-New Mexico region. President James K. Polk sent Slidell to negotiate with Mexico, but his proposal was rejected, so he sent troops into the disputed area near the Nueces River and the Rio Grande where 16 U.S. soldiers were killed, leaving the U.S. to declare war. The American forces led by Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott took control of the entire southwest. Taylor emerged as a war hero; contributed to the growing slavery debate in the U.S.
Wilmot Proviso
In 1846, This would banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future including disputed New Mexico Territory. This would not be fully enforced.
Mormons Migrated to Utah
In 1847-1848, After facing harsh resentment and the deaths of their leader, Joseph Smith, they migrated to modern day Salt Lake city and established a community there. They would be later annexed by the United States.
Seneca Falls Convention
In 1848, early and influential women's rights convention, the first to be organized by women in the Western world, in Seneca Falls, New York. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and a group of quaker women set up the convention and created and signed the declaration of Sentiments, advocating women's suffrage and rights.
Mexican Cession
In 1848, Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the territory of what is now California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Nevada was given to the United States.
California Gold Rush
In 1849, After gold was discovered in sutter's Mill in Coloma, CA, news of this attracted over 300,000 people to California, swiftly populating the territory. Thousands of people from Europe, Latin America, and China also came in search of gold.
Compromise of 1850
In 1850, Series of compromises and bills that settled a four year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding slavery in the new territories. In conclusion, California is admitted undivided as a free state, Texas trades some territorial claims for debt relief, New Mexico and Deseret are denied statehood and become New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory with slavery left to popular sovereignty
Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin
In 1852, she published sentimental novel that depicts the reality of slavery and its cruelty. It helped fuel the abolitionist cause and was the best selling book in the 1800s excluding the bible. The South vilified the book.
Kansas Nebraska Act
In 1854, this act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and allowed settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether it would allow slavery in each territory. Designed by Stephen A. Douglas.
Creation of the Republican Party
In 1854, It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas Nebraska Act, which threatened to extend slavery into the territories and to promote more vigorous modernization of the economy. It had almost no presence in the South, but by 1858 in the North it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state. Notable person would be Abraham Lincoln.
Dred Scot v. Sandford
In 1857, After being denied freedom by his owner's wife, Dred Scot decided to sue for freedom. The court ruled that African-Americans were not citizens, and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. He subsequently lost
Lincoln Douglas debates
In 1858, a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the Senate in Illinois, and Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. Debates were heated and about slavery. Lincoln would gain popularity in his debates.
John Brown's raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Election of 1860
In 1860, Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Southern Secession
In 1860-1861, Four days after Lincoln was elected into office, South Carolina legislature called for a special convention. The meeting was held in Charleston and the legislature unanimously voted to secede from the union. Seven states later met in Montgomery, Alabama. They created a government known as the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
Fort Sumter
In 1861, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. The Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Homestead Act
In 1862, The United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land in the new mid western frontier. Any adult male citizen who was head of the household could claim 160 acres of surveyed land at a minimal cost and needed to improve the plot of land. After five years of living on the land, the government would give them the property.
Morrill Land Grant Act
In 1862, United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. This act was to promote education among the United States and advocate the teaching of agricultural, liberal, and mechanic arts.
Emancipation Proclamation
In 1863, This was issued by Abraham Lincoln as the nation approached the third year of civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free. "The Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. This captured the hearts and minds of millions of Americans in the North and transformed the character of the war.
Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
In 1863, Vicksburg- to take back all of the Misssissippi River for the South, the North fought a 7 week battle and won cutting the South in half. Gettysburg- a plan by Lee to capture a Union army or city to force peace which led to battle; the bloodiest battle in which the South retreated. Sig: North had control of trade and split the South in half cutting of supplies; destroyed the South's army and led to Lee's destruction at Appamattox.
Appomattox Court House
In 1865, This is the location where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant. Lee called for a reconciliation between the two sides.
Abraham Lincoln assassination
In 1865, While attending a play at fords theater, John Wilkes Booth sneaked up behind Lincolns seat and shot him in the head. Lincoln would die a day later from his injuries, becoming the first president to be assassinated.
Freedman's Bureau
In 1865, U.S. federal government agency that aided the freed blacks in the South. It provided medical aid, education, and food to the weak and poor and insisted the freedmen to find jobs to support themselves. Due to the Black codes and the oppressive laws passed in the South, the Freedman's Bureau could only provide minimal help.
13th Amendment
In 1865, United States Constitution outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude. This was the first of three reconstruction amendments adopted following the Civil War.
Purchase of Alaska
In 1867, the acquisition of the Alaska territory by the United States from the Russian Empire in the year 1867 by a treaty ratified by the Senate. Fearing an invasion of Russia America by the British, the Russian government decided to sell the territory.
Radical Reconstruction began
In 1867 The US government sought to fix the state and infrastructure of the South after the civil war. In addition it also sought to empower the freed slaves and enfranchise them to modern society.
Andrew Johnson impeachment trial
In 1868, one of the most dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction and the first impeachment in history of a sitting United States president. Johnson was charged with the violation of the Tenure of Office Act, after removing Edwin Stanton of the secretary of war. Johnson was acquitted.
14th Amendment
In 1868, This was one of the three amendments passed during reconstruction. The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War.
Transcontinental railroad completed
In 1869, After several years of backbreaking labor, the Transcontinental railroad is finally finished. connecting the western united States and Eastern united States. This track went from Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California and is understood as one of the engineering feat of the century.
Standard Oil Created
In 1870, Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
Knights of Labor created
In 1869, It was the largest American labor organization of the 1880s. The organization promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman and sought for an 8 hour work day. At its height the organization had 800,000 members in 1886
Wyoming gave women rights to vote
In 1870, The legislators pass a bill that is signed into law granting women the right to vote. This was passed to attract women to come to its empty and under populated territories and to bolster the strength of conservative votes in the state.
Battle of Little Big Horn
In 1876, an armed engagement between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The tribes completely destroyed the army and killed over 268 Americans.