Unit 8 Exam Review
Terms in this set (49)
Which is NOT correct about emergent infectious diseases?
Emerging infectious diseases are caused primarily by mutations of known viruses.
A growing problem in the healthcare systems of developed nations is an increase in
multiple drug resistance
Which is NOT correct about H5N1, bird flu?
Humans have a long immune history with the virus.
Which is NOT true of malaria?
DDT can easily control the disease.
Use Figure 17-1. In 2013, the greatest increase in the number of children newly infected with HIV occurred in
Which represents an environmental hazard?
I. UV radiation
I and III
The way in which an organism might come into contact with an environmental hazard is called
route of exposure
A study focusing on the long-term effects of a chemical on the reproduction of trout would be categorized as
a chronic study.
Table 17-1 Percentage of deaths attributable to each of six risk factors, and to all six risks combined, for child and maternal malnutrition: countries grouped by income, 2004
Percentage of Deaths
Childhood underweight 3.8 7.8 0.7
Suboptimal breastfeeding 2.1 3.7 1.1
Vitamin A deficiency 1.1 2.2 0.3
Zinc deficiency 0.7 1.5 0.2
Iron deficiency 0.5 0.8 0.2
Iodine deficiency 0.0 0.0 0.0
All six risks 6.6 12.7 2.1
Source: Global Health Risks, World Health Organization, 2004: www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf
Use Table 17-1. Which risk connected to malnutrition causes the most deaths in middle-income countries?
Studies conducted by scientists to assess the risk of chemicals include
I. dose-response studies.
II. chronic studies.
III. retrospective studies.
I, II and III
Which infectious disease led to the destruction of hundreds of thousands of cows worldwide and prompted wide scale change in the feeding practices of cattle?
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Use Figure 17-2. In the United States and Canada, ____ of deaths over the age of 30 are attributed to tobacco use.
greater than 20 percent
Biomagnification was responsible for
the decline of fish-eating birds from DDT exposure.
Use Figure 17-3. The LD50 of the hypothetical chemical is approximately
5.5 hypothetical units.
Many scientists warn that the increased use of antibacterial soaps could contribute to a future health problem if
the soap promotes the evolution of bacterial-resistant pathogens.
In 2007, European Union nations agreed on the process of regulating chemicals within the European Union. This agreement is known as
Which international agreement placed restriction on a list of 12 chemicals, known as the dirty dozen?
The Stockholm Convention of 2001
Of the following risks to human health, which causes the most human deaths?
What is the dose that causes 50 percent of individuals to display a non-lethal effect?
Which is NOT a health risk factor in developing countries?
In developed countries, reducing disease is best promoted by
healthier lifestyle choices such as limiting excess food consumption and tobacco use.
A trout is continually exposed to an oil-soluble chemical. Over time, the concentration of the chemical within the trout increases. This is an example of
What causes bubonic plague?
The innocent-until-proven-guilty principle is
I. not used as a guiding principle in the United States.
II. based on the idea that scientific research must demonstrate harm before a chemical can be outlawed.
III. precautionary since it can prevent risk before proving a chemical is hazardous.
Use Table 17-3. Which statement describes the risk of death from air pollution?
The risk of death due to urban outdoor air pollution is greater in developed countries than in developing countries.
Which is NOT correct about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome?
The virus is spread by an airborne pathogen
Which is NOT an environmental benefit of composting?
Reduction in work force of waste management company
Which is least likely to be a danger associated with leachate from a sanitary landfill?
The leachate can raise the local temperature.
A company that produces laundry detergent switches from plastic bottles to flexible pouches that require 84 percent less packaging. This is an example of
Use Figure 16-2. Which country has the most efficient removal of materials from the waste stream?
Use Figure 16-2. Which country might most benefit from a program that promotes recycling and composting?
When considering the waste generated from a plastic cup, which of the following should NOT be considered in a life-cycle analysis?
The environmental harm caused by the coffee that is poured into the cups
If the United States produces approximately 40 million U.S. tons of hazardous waste annually, and only about 5 percent is recycled, what amount of waste that must be disposed of according to hazardous waste protocol?
38 million tons
It is believed that approximately ____ percent of the current MSW generated in the United States could be composted.
Which is NOT considered in a life-cycle analysis?
The item's aesthetic value
Use Figure 16-1. There was approximately a ____ in the use of plastics from 1980 to 2005.
300 percent increase
When MSW is categorized according to its source, which category comprises the greatest amount?
Containers and packaging
Which would NOT be classified as hazardous waste?
Manure based fertilizer
In order from the most desirable to the least desirable, what do the 3 Rs stand for?
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Which U.S. legislation imposes a tax on targeted industrial facilities and then utilizes those funds to clean up selected abandoned hazardous waste sites?
Which is NOT a negative aspect of waste incineration?
Generation of electric energy
Which item would most likely end up in the waste stream soonest?
A paper cup
Which would NOT be categorized as e-waste?
An economic benefit of non-toxic fly ash production at a waste incinerator is that the ash may
be used in the production of cement blocks and cement flooring.
The Brownfields Program is designed to
assist states and local governments in restoring contaminated sites through environmental cleanup.
Which component of a landfill is extracted and transported to a wastewater treatment facility?
Why is recycling plastic an example of open-loop recycling?
Plastic bottles can be recycled for the production of different plastic products.
When conducting a life-cycle analysis of manufactured goods which of the following would NOT be considered?
The amount of money the product will cost
Which component of a landfill impedes water flow and can trap metal ions?
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