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PSY 270 EXAM 3 - Ch. 6 notes
Terms in this set (18)
A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing dissonance by reminding oneself of one or more of one's positive attributes.
"Yeah, I feel pretty stupid to still be smoking, but boy am I a good cook. In fact, let me tell you about this new recipe...."
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's emotional reactions to future negative events.
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment.
Your friend Jen asks you an opinion on her new dress, and you think its ugly but you decide not to tell her that after she told you that she can't return it since she already had it altered. So you lie and tell her that it's a pretty dress.
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (i.e. one's attitudes or behavior)
When you can't find external justification for your behavior, you will attempt to find Internal Justification. If Jen is rich enough to buy another dress, then you have no reason to justify a lie.
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object
A long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification
The children who played with the forbidden toy but resisted, came to believe that they toy wasn't so wonderful after all; they persuaded themselves of this belief to justify the fact that by obeying the adults, they had given up something they wanted.
The arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior.
Smokers and cognitive dissonance
The greater the dependence on smoking and the greater the trouble they had quitting, the more justifications they came up with to keep smoking.
Given that people have successfully reduced dissonance in the past, why is it that they are not aware that they will do so in the future?
The answer is that the process of reducing dissonance is largely unconscious.
Self-esteem and dissonance
People with higher self-esteem experience the most dissonance when they behave in ways that are contrary to their high opinion of themselves.
Those with lower self-esteem will not be able to feel dissonance as they will feel that committing an immoral action falls in line with how they perceive themselves
Dissonance across cultures
In "collectivist" societies, dissonance reducing behavior might be less prevalent. In such cultures, we'd be more likely to find behavior aimed at maintaining group harmony and less likely to see people justifying their own personal misbehavior. But they are more likely to see people experiencing dissonance when their behavior shames or disappoints others.
Insufficient Punishment lacks complete justification....
The less severe you make the threat the less external justification there is; the less external justification, the higher the need for internal justification.
Ben Franklin Effect: Justifying Acts of Kindness
You start to like someone more after having done a task for them.
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