30 terms

ENGL 2020 Midterm Terms

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Aubade
"Song of the morning" or "poem of the dawn": a conventional form passed down from the Greeks. Typically a love poem, about lovers parting at dawn (about waking up disheveled the morning after a night spent with a lover). Sense of illicit but chaste event.
Ex) "The Sun Rising" by Donne, "A Description of the Morning" by Swift
Mock Heroic
Primarily satiric literary mode in which present realities are juxtaposed to noble and heroic past, only to be found wanting. Usually done by allusion to heroic style, characterizations, actions and so forth. Ex) "Rape of the Lock" by Pope, "Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat" by Gray
Metonymy
One expression is substituted for another on basis of material, causal, or conceptual relation. Lends a word new meaning without it actually changing. Ex) "the crown" for the King (or Queen), "I'll have a glass" for I'll have a drink
Synecdoche
Using a part for a whole. Ex) "all hands on deck" where hands stand for people, "live by the sword" where sword counts as weapon, or "steel" for sword
Anthropocentrism
Belief that human beings are the most important species on the planet; that humans have a higher moral status or value than anything else. "Human supremacy"
Assonance
Repetition of vowel or dipthong in non-rhyming stressed syllables, near enough to each other for an echo to be discernible
Consonance
Repetition of the sound of a consonant cluster in stressed, un-rhymed syllables near enough to be heard together
Alliteration
Repetition of a letter or grouping of letters at the beginning of words near enough to be heard together
Ictus mark
The mark placed over each prominent position when scanning meter - in English goes over the stressed syllables.
Accentual syllabic verse
Most common and traditional metrical system for English poetry, which combines count of syllables per line with rules for the number and position of accents in the line.
Zeugma
Multiple clauses are governed by a single word, often a noun or verb, which often has a different relationship to each clause it governs. Ex) "she stole my heart and my wallet",
Enjambment
Continuation of a syntactic movement from one line to the next without a major juncture or pause; opposite of an end-stopped line. It is often felt as overflow of one line into the next
Caesura
A mid-line pause. Often follows enjambment.
Epistolary novel
Type of novel in which the author uses letters, journals, and/or diary entries in the work or tells the story/delivers messages in a series of letters. Ex) in Fantomina, when she begins to correspond in letters
Ballad
A narrative song set to a rounded tune, or a literary poem modeled on such songs. Presents a series of actions involving protagonists, typically focusing on a single episode where the plot involves a small cast of characters and is directed toward a catastrophe. Both passed down as folk songs of unknown origin and then as poems of similar forms written by individuals. Important for anonymity of composition, sense of belonging to the people as a whole, direct response to "cult of the author"
Egotistical sublime
Egotistical = self centered, Sublime = vastness, magnitude, intimations of power. Phrase first used by Keats to describe Wordsworth's poetry and poetic philosophy. This is because his poems are very inward, an imaginative self obsession. We are led through certain philosophies, willed into them.
Negative Capability
Coined by Keats to describe the state of mind necessary to be a poet, which involves being capable of existing in uncertainties, with mysteries and doubts without reaching for fact and reason. Ability to identify completely with characters, and to write about them with empathy and understanding
The picturesque
Halfway between the beautiful (smoothness, regularity, order) and the sublime (vastness, magnitude, power) - combines aspects of both of these. An aesthetic of effect. Almost does not exist independently in nature, but only in its perception by the viewer, particularly in its arrangement.
Ode
Most formal, ceremonious, and complexly organized form of lyric poetry. Offering praise, at ritual occasions that are ceremonial, often public. Pindaric ode: formal address to event, person, thing not present but something to be celebrated; involves three motions: strophe, antistrophe, epode (aab structure); often accompanied by dance. Also such thing as a Horatian ode (more tranquil and contemplative than intense and brilliant, more intended for private).
Strophe
Turn in an ode (first section). this is the part of the ode that represents the beginning steps of a dance pattern which are later repeated in the opposite direction. Has identical metrical and musical structure as second section.
Antistrophe
Counter turn in an ode (second section). This is the part of the ode that represents the part of a dance pattern where the beginning steps are repeated but in the opposite direction. Has identical metrical and musical structure as first section.
Epode
The stand of an ode (last section). This is of a different length and structure from the other two sections of the ode.
Hymn
Source of the modern ode. Religious, praise songs - mostly to gods, sometimes heroes and abstractions. Homeric hymn: Invocation of a deity (apostrophe), followed by a narrative genealogy establishing the antiquity and authenticity of the deity, followed by petition for some special favor, and concluding with vow for future service.
Melancholy
Profoundly painful dejection, uninterest in outside world. It is a highly specific form of depression, the inability to get over something and reattach. Coes from study of 4 humors: extra black bile = melancholic, i.e. despondent, quiet, analytical. Often associated to scholarship. Ex) Hamlet, Keats
Elegy
Poem of loss or mourning. Often a lament, pastoral, mythic, with hints of ritual.
Pastoral
Ancient versions: poems in hexameters in which fictional herdsment sing to one another or to an absent beloved in a stylized natural setting, a peaceful rural location. Modern versions: themes of natural harmony, love, friendship, virtue and poetry itself using things associated with ancient literary shepherds.
Free Indirect Discourse
Combines elements of focalization and external narration. Sentences or passages are narrated from external perspective and bear that grammatical form but the thoughts and ideas are attributable to a particular character. Voice of passage seems to borrow from both narrator's and character's perspectives at once.
"Et in arcadia Ego"
"Death is even in paradise," reminder of mortality and human transience.
Sonnet
Poem of fourteen lines, often split into two sections with a turn after the first 8 lines. Normally follows strict rhyme scheme
Heroic couplet
Rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry. Often closed and self contained. (Pope uses often)