Chapter 21: Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict
Terms in this set (15)
When and where did communism exercise influence during the twentieth century?
started up in Europe, some European socialists believed that they could achieve their goals peacefully but
disagreed. Russia went through the
and became the first nation to call themselves communists. Communism influenced Korea, Vietnam, Greece, France, Italy, the United States, Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia, Bolivia and Peru.
Identify the major differences between the Russian and Chinese revolutions.
Unlike Russia, the ideas of Karl Marx were barely known in China.
The Bolsheviks found their primary audience among workers in Russia's major cities and the Chinese communists looked to the rural peasant villages for support.
Why were the Bolsheviks able to ride the Russian Revolution to power?
-People were annoyed with provisional government.
-The Bolsheviks' message was to end war, land for peasants, workers control of factories, self determination for non-Russians
-Bolsheviks seized power in an overnight coup
-Defeated their enemies in a 3 year civil war
What was the appeal of communism in China before 1949?
Chinese pride, less associated with the West. Peasants wanted no landlords
What changes did communist regimes bring to the lives of women?
In the Soviet Union, full legal and political equality for women, marriage free procedure among consenting adults, divorce and abortion made legal, illegitimacy abolished, women no longer have to take men's names, pregnancy leave mandated, women actively mobilized as workers. In China, the Marriage Law of 1950 was a direct attack on patriarchal and Confucian traditions.The
Chinese Communist Party
also launched a Women's Federation, although its leadership was less radical than the
), which was later ended by
How did the collectivization of agriculture differ between the USSR and China?
, the peasants had spontaneously redistributed the land among themselves, an the Bolsheviks ratified their actions. In the Soviet Union, peasant resistance to collectivization led to extensive violence in 1928-1933. In 1949
, after a long and difficult process, peasants were encouraged to confront and humiliate landlords, which resulted in over one million deaths of landlords. In China, collectivization during the 1950s was generally a peaceful process.
What were the achievements of communist efforts at industrialization? What problems did these achievements generate?
involved with the
in industrialization were that there was modernization from
. The industrialization included
in both China and Russia. Rapid urbanization, exploitation of the countryside, and growth of bureaucratic and technological elite.
were: industrialization brought rapid urbanization
Why did communist regimes generate terror and violence on such a massive scale?
Under *STALIN* and MAO ZEDONG*, conflicts erupted in a search for enemies that disfigured both societies. These enemies included pre-revolutionary elites, and supporters of the communist party who was corrupted by *BOURGEOISIE* ideas.
, conflicts erupted in a search for enemies that disfigured both societies. These enemies included pre-revolutionary elites, and supporters of the communist party who was corrupted by
party who was corrupted by *BOURGEOISIE
just wanted to have supporters who supported communism and not anything else.
How did the Soviet Union and China differ in terms of the revolutions that brought communists to power and in the construction of socialist societies?
What commonalities are also apparent (regarding the Soviet Union and China in terms o the revolutions that brought communists to power and in the construction of socialist societies)?
In what different ways was the cold war expressed?
It was expressed through rivalry militarist satellite countries of Eastern Europe; and a series of regional wars, Tense standoffs occurred, like the Cuban Missile Crisis. There was a wall between east and west Europe called the iron curtain which was very heavily fortified.
In what ways did the United States play a global role after World War II?
The United States lead the Western world in an effort to contain the spread of the communist movement. It deployed military might around the world; it became the world's largest creditor and its chief economic power; and it became an exporter of popular culture. U.S. grew to to a imperial presidency and a
NATIONAL SECURITY STATE
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the communist world by the 1970s?
By the 70s, communism had reached the greatest extent of expansion. The Soviet Union had matched its military might with the U.S. However, divisions within the communist world increased, especially between Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, China and the Soviet Union, and China and Vietnam. The horrors of Stalin's Terror and the gulag, of Mao's Cultural Revolution, and of something approaching genocide in communist Cambodia all wore away at communist claims to moral superiority over capitalism.
What explains the rapid end of the communist era?
End of communist era followed Mao's death in 1976, then popular movements toppled communist government's and finally Gorbachev's efforts to revive socialism exacerbated difficulties. First cause was economic: communism failed to produce the economic growth enjoyed by capitalist nations. The second failure was moral, the horror of Stalin's terror and Mao's cultural revolution wore away at communism's claim of moral superiority. Also world was widely embracing democracy as the ideal.
Stalin died and Gorbachef started perestroika (openness) stopping censorship. Xiaoping was the guy after Mao in China. Did similar stuff
How did the end of communism in the Soviet Union differ from communism's demise in China?
In China economic reforms by Deng Xiaoping opened up China's market to the world economy and brought about stunning economic growth that has been maintained. This was accompanied by better diets, lower mortality rates, declining poverty, massive urban construction, but was unwilling to embrace political democracy. In Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev also lifted heavy hand of government and allowed small-scale businesses, private farming, and cautious foreign investment. These reforms failed, however, and inflation mounted, goods in short supply, few foreign investors. A democracy movement sprang to life and Soviet Union and ended in August 1991. It was split up into 15 new and independent states.
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