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Personality Theories exam review

STUDY
PLAY
4 functions of Personality Theories
To provide a way of organizing what we know about ourselves and others; To explain differences between individuals, To explore how people conduct their lives; To determine ways to help improve lives.
Personality Traits
General ways of behaving that characterize an individual.
Personality Psychologists
Try to develop systematic theories about human behavior and to test their theories in a scientific way.
The Four Major Schools of Personality Theory
Psychoanalytic, Behaviorists, Humanistic, Trait
Psychoanalytic
The Personality Theory that emphasizes the importance of motive hidden deep in the unconsciousness.
Neo-Freudians
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson
Behaviorists
Study the way rewards and punishments shape our actions.
Founders of Behaviorism
John Watson, B.F. Skinner
Humanism
Emphasizes human potential for growth, creativity, and spontaneity. Rogers, Maslow
Trait Theory
Stresses the importance of understanding basic personality characteristics. Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck
Freud's Death Drive
The desire for the final end shows up in human personality as destructiveness and aggression
Freud's Life Instinct
Primarily erotic and pleasure seeking
Id
Seeks immediate gratification of desires regardless of consequences, wants
Ego
Rational, thoughtful, realistic personality process, can. must resolve the conflict between the Id and Superego without offending either
Superego
moral part of personality, source of guilt feelings, should
Defense Mechanisms
protect the ego from experiencing anxiety about failing in its tasks
5 main defense mechanisms
displacement, repression, reaction formation, projection, regression
Reaction Formation
replace unacceptable feeling or urge with its opposite
Projecton
Believing that impulses coming from within are coming from other people
Collective Unconscious
the storehouse of instincts, urges, and memories of the entire human species through history
Archetypes
inherited universal ideas that reflect the common experiences of humanity and which are in every person
Carl Jung
distinguished between personal and collective unconscious. identified archetypes by studying dreams, visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, religions
Alfred Adler
believed that the driving force in people's lives is a desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority. believed that the way parents treat their children has a great influence on the styles of life they choose.
Life Styles
Adler's patterns of overcoming inadequacies
Erich Fromm
centerd his theory around the need to belong and the loneliness freedom brings. believed personality is to a considerable extent a reflection of factors such as social class, minority status, education, vocation, religious and philosophical background.
Karen Horney
stressed the importance of the basic anxiety and resentment felt by children
Behaviorists
more concerned with controlling than understanding behavior
Contingencies of Reinforcement
the conditions that maintain behavior
Albert Bandura
believed that personlaity is not just acquired through direct reinforcement but also is a result of observational learning
Observational Learning
Learning a new behavior by watching another person and the consequences of their behavior
Humanistic Psychology
stresses our relative freedom from instinctual pressures and our ability to create and live by personal standards
Self-actualized people
accept themselves as they are instead of denying shortcoming or trying to rationalize or change things about themselves that they don't like
Abraham Maslow
believed that self-actualizing people must satisfy basic needs for food, shelter, safety, love, belonging, self-esteem
Carl Rogers
was primarily concerned with the roadblocks and detours on the path to self-actualization. believed there are two sides to every person: the organism and the self
The self
is acquired gradually ove the years by observing how other people react to you
positive regard
approval from significant others
conditions of worth
lead us to see ourselves as good or bad and come from the mixed messages of others
first and foremost question for trait theorists
"What behaviors go together?"
Statistical Analysis
used by trait theorists to determine what behaviors go together
Gordon Allport
Trait theorist that emphasized the positive, rational, and conscious reasons why we act. held that traits are responsible for the relative consistency of every individual's behavior
nomothetic
the study of large groups to identify general laws of personality
idiographic
studying individual people in detail
Raymond Cattell
identified two types of traits: source and surface traits. Surface traits: clusters of behavior that tend to go together. Source traits: the underlying roots or causes of the behavioral clusters
Hans Eysenck
identified two basic dimension of personality: 1. the degree to which people have control over their feelings; 2. extrovert vs. introvert
Neurotic
moody, anxious, restless person
The Big Five
neuroticism; extroversion; openness; agreeableness; conscientiousness
Interpersonality Theories of Personality
see personality as a function of a person's social environment
Harry Stack Sullivan
Interpersonal theorists that proposed a two-dimensional model of personality
Power and Friendliness
the two dimensions of Harry Stack Sullivan's model of personality
Depreciation
Devaluing the accomplishments of others in order to safeguard one's own self esteem
Gemeinschaftsgefuhl
Fellow-feelings. The feeling of connectedness with and sympathy for one's fellow humans translated by Adler as social interest.
Individual Psychology
A term used to identify Adler's theory to distinguish it from other approaches. It stresses that each person, as an integrated whole, engages in goal directed behavior.
Integrative amalgam
A term used to indicate the confluence of drives.
Social Interest
A desire to contribute to the welfare of others and to society. It has a different meaning that sociability
Teleological
Goal-directed, purposeful; examining behavior in terms of its goals.
The levels of Consciousness according to Jung.
1.Ego is the conscious level;
2. Personal Unconscious: individual's thoughts, memories, wishes, impulses;
3.Collective Unconscious: storehouse of memories inherited from the common ancestors of the whole human race;
Jung's Ego
Ego: the conscious level; carries out daily activities; like Freud's Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Individual's thoughts, memories, wishes, impulses; like Freud's Preconscious and Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
Storehouse of memories inherited from the common ancestors of the whole human race; no counterpart in Freud's theory. It contains archetypes, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
What is the role of Archetypes according to Jung?
Archetypes cause us to respond in certain ways to common human experiences.
Additional Archetypes
Persona, Shadow, Inner Child, Anima, Animus, God, Hero, Nurturing Mother, Wise Old Man, Wicked Witch, Devil, Powerful Father.
Personality Orientations (Attitudes) for Jung
Introversion and Extroversion
Jung's 4 Mental Functions of Personality
Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, Intuition.
Mental function of Thinking Personality
naming and interpreting experience (via logic)
Mental function of Feeling Personality
evaluating an experience for its emotional worth to us.
Mental function of sensing Personality
experiencing the world through the senses without interpreting or evaluating it.
Mental function of Intuiting Personality
relating directly to the world without physical sensation, reasoning, or interpretation.
2 Categories of Personality's Mental functions per Jung.
1. decision-making (how the person functions when to decide something)
2. experiencing the world (how the person functions when experience the world around it.
Decision making Function can be
a. Thinking-based (logical)
b. feeling based (emotional)
Experiencing the World function can be
a. based on senses (I believe / trust my senses and donot need/care to explain)
b.based on intuition (donot rely completely on senses, reason, explanation)
How personality develops per Jung.
• we all have the potential to develop in a huge variety of ways.
• As we grow up, we make decisions about the sort of person that we want to become.
• Eventually, you become that person (more or less). But at each step, as you decide to take on a characteristic (say, the trait of 'caring'), you decide not to take on its opposite (e.g. 'selfishness' or 'cruelty').
• But the opposite of your chosen trait does not simply disappear. It remains a part of your potential. It becomes a part of your shadow.
Healthy human psychological development to Jung is...
a matter of balanced development, (PROPER USE of ARCHETYPES) while maintaining a good relationship between the ego and the self (the inner core of personality).
What is the problem of an overdeveloped ego?
people would be cut off from their inner core. The result will be a loss of contact with feelings and with a sense of meaning in life
What is the common characteristic between Jung's and Humanistic Theory.
Humans have innate inner (good) nature that cannot be changed, and the idea that allowing one's inner nature to emerge is the key to healthy psychological development.
What is Mandala to Jung?
The Key archetype of the Collective Unconscious is Mandala ("magic circle"), an image symbolizing the unity of life.
nomothetic approach
seeks general laws about how some aspect of personality affects behavior
idiographic approach
focuses on case studies or individualized traits
State v. Trait
________ is a consistent long-lasting tendency in behavior - also can be an attitudinal or cognitive related phenomenon - i.e. hostility, shyness, extroversion
________ is a temporary activation of a particular behavior - typically when emotionally or affectivity aroused - i.e. anger
Eysenk - 2 dimensions
Eysenk argued that of these 16 there is a large degree of overlap - thus he argued based on factor analysis that there are 2 dimensions or supertraits: introversion-extroversion & emotional stability or unstability. this makes up 4 categories.
Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Personality
Model of personality based on traits that Eysenck believed were highly heritable and had psychophysiological foundation
Mischel
Personality psychologists should abandon their efforts to explain behavior with traits, focusing instead on situations. He argues that behavior is learned & thus varies across situations. As behavior is somewhat governed by "scripts" or rules that govern who will do what when personality traits will have little effect on behavior.
Attribution
- The process through which we attempt to understand the cause of others behavior by inferring their traits, motives, and intentions.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate dispositional influences and underestimate situational influences on others' behaviors (AKA correspondence bias).
Actor-Observer effect
the tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes but others' mainly to internal - dispositional causes.
Self-serving bias
the tendency to attribute success to internal causes (e.g., ability) and negative outcomes or failures to external - situational causes.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
theory of cultural relativism which holds that the tools and skills valued in the culture one lives in defines intelligence.
Harlow's
contact comfort more than bio. Need - but monkeys w/ surrogate mothers (cloth on sticks) didn't know how to interact w/ other monkeys.
secure
mother is used as secure base from which to explore - distress on separation - no play while mom is out of room - on reunion, is happy & returns to play
anxious
resistant - response towards mom fluctuates b/w anger and happy - clingy and crying - on reunion, infant is clingy
avoidant AKA ambivalent
infant ignores mom for the most part - cries on separation - doesn't go when she returns - may sneak up beside her - but won't make eye contact
Anal Stage
(18 months to three years) psychosexual pleasure is from bowel movements - first expelling feces and then, during toilet training, from retaining feces. Many conflicts arise around the child's ability to achieve self-control
Phallic Stage
3-5 - children begin to play w/ their genitals child discovers he has (or that she doesn't have) a penis. - fixation can lead to penis envy (only in girls) or castration anxiety in boys. Also, Sexual desire directed toward the parent of opposite sex. Produces Oedipal and Electra conflicts—unconscious wish to have opposite-sex parent all to self by eliminating the same-sex parent
Latent period
5 or 6 - adolescence - sexual interest is suppressed. Little psychological development occurs. Focus of child is on learning skills and abilities necessary to succeed as adult
Genital Stage
puberty - sexual interest in others. Libido is focused on the genitals, but not in manner of self-manipulation associated with the phallic stage
This stage is not accompanied by specific conflict. People reach this stage only if conflicts are resolved at previous stages
Horney
a Feminist Interpretation of Psychoanalysis - argued Freud failed to include the importance of cultural influences on personality & misunderstood the sexual motivations of women. Revised theory of penis envy: Penis is a symbol of social power rather than an organ that women actually desire to have & Highlighted the influence of the culture on personality development.
Jung
Jung's theory incorporated many of Freud's but placed a much greater importance on spirituality & search for meaning. He argued for a collective unconscious - or the cumulative experience of the preceding generations - much like we spoke about in evolution - and archetypes - or vague images that we inherited from our ancestors. He was One of Freud's most famous students.
Adler
thought Freud focused to much on sex drives. Instead, he focused on ambition & striving for superiority. He founded the school of Individual Psychology - looking at the person as a whole not as the sum of their parts.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
Trust Versus Mistrust
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt
Initiative Versus Guilt
Industry Versus Inferiority
Identity Versus Role Confusion
Intimacy Versus Isolation
Generativity Versus Stagnation
Integrity Versus Despair
Schemas:
An organized collection of beliefs and feelings about some aspect of the world. Schemas act as scaffolds, providing structure for the interpretation and organization of new information that we encounter.
SELF-CONCEPT
A special type of schema. Consists of all the knowledge we process about ourselves. It is developed out of our interaction with others.
Self-Schema
is an organized collection of beliefs & feelings about ones self. This includes specific personality dispositions.
Levels of Awareness
Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious
Conscious
consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular time
Preconscious
Contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved
Unconscious
Contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of the conscious awareness
Anxiety
Produced by the ego and type of anxiety depends on the source of the threat
Realistic Anxiety
Caused by danger in the environment, ego
Neurotic Anxiety
Result of fears that you will yield to powerful and dangerous id impulses
Moral Anxiety
You think that it is wrong; you know it is wrong. You don't do it because you know it is wrong, superego
Oral Stage
0-1 yrs; fixation with mouth - food
Carl Jung
Analytical Psychology - developed the idea of extro/introversion
B.F. Skinner
behaviorist; personality is a collection of response tendencies tied to various stimulus situations; agreed with Freud about past experiences; importance of reinforcement, punishment and extinction
Albert Bandura
social learning theory; cognitive processes; reciprocal determinism
Walter Mischel
Less consistency in behavior; the person-situation controversy; both the individual and the situation determine behavior (honest person not stealing from the store but stealing from the internet)
Carl Rogers
Humanistic perspective; self-concept, incongruence, conditional/unconditional positive regard
Incongruence
Disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Psysiological, safety/security, belongingness/love, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic and self-actualization
Humanistic Negatives
lacked a strong research base, poor testability, over optimistic view of human nature
Basic anxiety
Psychological state that exists when basic hostility is repressed. It is the general feeling that everything and everyone in the world is potentially dangerous.
Basic hostility
feeling generated in a child if needs for safety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly satisfied by the parents
moving against people
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the tendency to exploit other people and to gain power over them. Horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the hostile type
Moving toward people
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be wanted, loved, and protected by other people. Horney referred to the person using this adjustment technique as the compliant type
Hedonia - Aristotle
The more one seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize pain living a life, "bereft of depth, meaning and community"
Adler
neofreudian who agreed with Freud about importance of childhood experiences but felt it was social tensions not sexual ones that were critical in developing personalities. stressed birth order, sibling rivalry, and striving for superiority
Eudaimonia - Aristotle
a contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous
Personality Psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Bandura
Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of development and behavior modification
Cz
Phenomonoligcal Approach; Flow is a state in which one is immersed in an experience that is rewarding in and of itself. Having goals is necessary in order to attain flow.
Erikson
Proposed that individuals go through 8 distinct, universal stages of development. Each stage consists of a developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis.
Rogers
Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
thorndike
developed the law of effect, where rewards determine behavior being repeated, also believed intelligence to be determined as specific
Law of Effect
(psychology) the principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences
Winnicott
object-relations theorist
Horney
basic childhood anxiety; psychoanalytic, 1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends
Kelly
put forth a theory that explains the kind of attribution people make based on three kinds of information: consistency, distinctivness, and consensus.
Personal Construct Theory
Kelly's description of personality in terms of cognitive processes. we are capable of interpreting behaviors and events and of using this understanding to guide our behavior and to predict the behavior of other people
Klein
United States psychoanalyst (born in Austria) who was the first to specialize in the psychoanalysis of small children (1882-1960)
Object relations theory
Psychoanalytic theory that originated with Melanie Klein's view that the building blocks of how people experience the world emerge from their relations to loved and hated objects (significant people in their lives)
Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Modeling
Observing behaviors of others and consequences
Vicarious learning
Especially someone with clout, respected by observer
Also, most popular peers
Social Persuasion
Self-Efficacy can be acquired or weakened
Collective Efficacy
Shared beliefs in collective power to produce desired results, common interests
Cultural Efficacy
More current research by Bandura suggests that culture has a lot of persuasion, the models we choose, what we attend to, and what is or should be motivating
Self-Efficacy
That one can organize and execute action to deal with certain situation; One's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations
Critic of Freud (Adler)
Critical of idea of unconscious, argued that some things didn't fit, or were not understandable, he also believed that the role of sexuality was overplayed and that other motives existed
Influence and Background (Horney)
Influenced by Adler's theory of compensation, affected by strict and religious father, overbearing husband, and long affair with Erich Fromm
Basic Anxiety (Horney)
Feelings of loneliness in a hostile world, if child does not feel loved then the child will experience basic anxiety, and will likely become a neurotic adult and project their anxiety on others
5 Basic Needs (Fromm)
Relatedness (connectedness to others), Transcendence (need to transcend self), Rootedness (connection to past, culture), Identity (sense of self), Frame of Reference (operative world view)
variable ratio
reinforcement are given according to the number of responses the organism has made
fixed interval
reinforces responses based on the passage of time
variable interval
reinforces according to time intervals that change form reinforcement to reinforcement
behavior modification
therapeutic approach that systematically applies learning principles to change behavior
2 levels of super ego
*conscious and ego ideal. has morals and ethics and guilt.