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IB History Adolf Hitler
Terms in this set (45)
Hitler begins to develop his ideas in Vienna
Germany is defeated in First World War; a republic is declared
Weimar Republic is established; Treaty of Versailles is signed, which influenced Hitler's thinking
Weimar Republic is forced to accept the harsh Treaty of Versailles
25-point programme is introduced reconciling nationalism and socialism
Hitler attempts the Munich Putsch and fails- gains publicity, becomes known. Munich Putsch: Hitler and General Erich Ludendorff led a column of around 2000 armed Nazis through Munich. Shots were fired and General Ludendorff was arrested. Hitler escapes but is arrested on 11 November. At his trial, Hitler claims his actions had been taken out of patriotic concern for his country. Convicted of high treason, but condemned for only minimum sentence 5 years due to sympathetic right wing jury. Good propagandist event
French and Belgian troops invade the Ruhr; massive inflation results
Hitler is imprisoned in Landsberg Fortress (and released early in December). 'More akin to a hotel' according to historian Ian Kersaw. Wrote Mein Kampf
Wall Street Crash leads to unemployment in Germany
Müller's Grand Coalition collapses and Brüning becomes chancellor. Opening way for total breakdown of the democracy.
Nazis win 107 seats in elections (18.3% of the vote)
Unemployment reaches 6 million
Hindenburg beats Hitler in presidential elections
von Papen replaces Brüning as chancellor
Nazis win 230 Reichstag seats becoming the largest single party
Nazis win 196 Reichstag seats- a sign that their support has passed its peak
von Schleicher becomes chancellor
Hitler becomes chancellor (is in a position to put ideology into practice)
Reichstag fire is blamed on the communists
Nazis win 288 Reichstag seats; Enabling Act gives Hitler dictatorial powers for four years (the 'Law for terminating the suffering of the people and the nation'
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service is passed, one-day boycott of Jewish shops and businesses, Civil Service Law
All trade unions are dissolved and workers forced to join the DAF (the German Labour Front), public burning of 'un-German' books; Law for the Protection of Retail Trade
Concordat is concluded with the Pope whereby the Catholic Church is banned from political activity in return for a promise that its religious freedom will be upheld; law is passed against the formation of new parties (with KPD/SDP banned and other parties dissolving themselves, Germany becomes a single-party state)
The German Chamber of Culture, Reich Food Estate and Reich Economic Chamber are created; Reich Entailed Farm Law
Elections are held in which the Nazi candidates win 92.2% of the vote
Law is passed for the reconstruction of the state, placing federal states under Reich governors
Night of the Long Knives- the SS kill SA leaders and other opponents of Hitler
Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes head of state- Führer and Reich chancellor; army swears a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler, Schacht becomes minister of economics
New Plan comes into effect
Nuremberg Laws- Jews are deprived of rights
Lebensborn (Spring of Life) programme is launched
Four-Year Plan is drawn up with Goering in charge
Membership of Hitler Youth becomes compulsory
Pope issues "Mit Brennender Sorge" ("With Burning Anxiety") criticising racism
Schacht resigns as minister of economics and is replaced by Goering
Army is reorganised to increase Hitler's control
Reichskristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass)- anti-Jewish pogrom
Euthanasia programme is launched
Bishop Galen protests against euthanasia
Gassing of Jews in movile vans in Chelmo begins
Final details of the Holocaust are established
Wannsee Conference to co-ordinate 'final solution' of Jewish question; Speer takes control of the economy.
Historiography of Hitler's rise to power
Historian's argue that it was perhaps 'national characteristics' that influenced the rise of Nazism. Germany's militaristic history and non-democratic tradition, instead preferring strong authoritarian govts, continued by Hitler.
Hitler's leadership: Strong dictator
Many historians believe that he was a strong dictator. Absolute control over: ideology, education, economy, army. Lacked opposition. Control of security. Use of propaganda.
Hitler's leadership: Weak dictator
Many historians believe that he was a weak dictator.
His personality: lazy, erratic, lack of interest in detail. Opted out of govt: allowed ministers and mayors to make decisions, meant confusion and competition for influence. Nazi programmes such as economic recovery, rearmament, no war economy were unfinished.
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