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The Government and Politics of the European Union
Terms in this set (110)
What can the institutional structure of the EU be traced to?
The institutional structure and operation of the EU can be traced back to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
How did WWII affect the idea of Unity in Europe?
WWII was a catalyst for a renewed interest in European Unity. Nationalist rivalries are destructive.
Who was Altiero Spinelli and what was he known for?
Altiero Spinelli (Italian federalist), produces a blueprint for the United States of Europe. Contributing factor: fear of territorial ambitions of the USSR. This lead to deep involvement of the USA in European affairs in the late 1940s.
How did the Marshall Plan (signed in 47) aid in Europe's quest for Unity?
The essence of the Plan was an American offer of economic aid to Europe- condition: relief program collective
What was the purpose of the 1947 Signature of Treaty of Dunkirk by the UK and France. Extended in 1948 by the Treaty of Brussels (incorporated the Low Countries)?
Although listed as economic and cultural cooperation foremost mutual security pact. Served as basis for the Western European Union
Council of Europe in 1949
West European nations create the Council of Europe in 1949 (intergovernmental). It was a first step towards cooperation between them, but six countries wanted to go further.
How did the schuman plan affect European relations ?
Based on the Schuman plan, six countries sign a treaty to run their heavy industries - coal and steel - under a common management.
The six are Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
European coal and steel community (ECSC)
The product of a combination of integrationist impulses and ideas, national self-interest, and international circumstances
Basis for European Union (40 years later)
How did France's rejection of the EDC affect the progress towards European Unity?
Prompted by Jean Monnet the French government proposed a European Defense Community (EDC) -Western European Army
Failed when French National Assembly refused to ratify the Treaty in 1954
This led to the discrediting of the sectorial process of integration
How did the treaty of Rome affect European nations
A treaty, signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in 1957, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), sometimes referred to as the Common Market, to begin the process of eliminating tariff barriers and cutting restrictions of the flow of capital and labor.
What was the structure of the European economic Community
Institutional structure- modeled on that of ECSC
-A quasi-executive and supranational European Commission (motor of integration)
-Counterbalanced by Council of Ministers representing member states
-Weak Assembly - European Parliament (EP)
what were the goals of the EEC?
Goals: completion of custom union and common market
By 1961 EEC internal tariff barriers had been substantially reduced and by the end of the decade custom union completed.
But by the early 1970s EEC nowhere near goal of common market
How did the fear of losing sovereignty affect the advancing of the EEC towards a common market?
In the 60s and ever since: issues of deepening and widening of the community along with enlargement
Although supportive, French president Charles de Gaulle was suspicious of anything undermining French sovereignty
france in the 60s
1963 President de Gaulle vetoes British membership
1965 France walks out of the Council of Ministers and begins a boycott of EEC institutions
France has a problem with extension of qualified majority voting (QMV) in the Council of Ministers
And with financial arrangements for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
1966, appease France, member allowed to veto a proposal that directly affected its national interests, but rather vague language of what that meant
What made up the EC?
European Economic Community
European Steel and Coal Community
happened in 1969
Inaugurated summitry as a new style of European Community decision-making -formalized with the establishment of the European Council in 1974 - leaders of national governments.
Considers EC enlargement and supports greater policy cooperation and economic and monetary union
How did they try to obtain monetary stability in the 70s?
The EU's first plan for a single currency dates from 1970.
To maintain monetary stability, EU members decide to allow their currencies to fluctuate against each other only within narrow limits.
This exchange rate mechanism (ERM), created in 1972, is a first step towards the introduction of the euro, 30 years later.
European Regional development Fund
To show their solidarity, EU leaders set up the European Regional Development Fund.
Its purpose is to transfer money from rich to poor regions to improve roads and communications, attract investment and create jobs.
This type of activity later comes to account for one third of all EU spending.
In what order were the following signed...
The Single European Act (1986), The European Union (1992), and the Nice Treaty (2001) pg 33
Which of the Following established the EU?
The Maastricht treat (also known as the treaty of the european union) established the EU pg 35
Two IGCs preceded the Treaty of the European Union. what were they about?
EMU (european Monetary Policy) and political union pg.35
European citizenship was created...
...in addition to natinal citizenship
european citizenship was conferred upon citizens of EU member states, in addition to their national citizenship status. pg 39
Problems following the TEU
Following the TEU (1992), there were fears that a three-tier EMU, national opt-outs, and the pillar structure all contributed to the fragmentation of Europe.
which European institution gained decision making power through the introduction of the cooperation procedure?
The European Parliament is granted a second reading of proposed legislation under the cooperation procedure.
The CFI(Court of first Instance) was created to?
The Court of First Instance was created by SEA (1986) to support the work of the European court of Justice (ECJ)
Allows members states to abstain in the Council on Common Foreign and Security Policy decision, without blocking a unanimous agreement
The principle that applicant states must meet certain conditions before they can become members of the EU
created by Ernest Haas ibegan in 1958 with the publication by Ernst B. Haas
popular in the 50s and 60s but didnt fit the 70s-90s,has three core concepts: spillover, interest groups and political parties are key actors in integration forward, has an elitist point of view
spillover,(functional): cooperation in one sector creates functional pressure for cooperation in another related area,political:more deliberate political process national and supranational actors make package deals in order to establish common agreement in a range of policy areas
example: to establish the Single Market member states ended up accepting the regulation of certain aspects of the working environment
Basically believes that integrations is driven by self-interest of groups rather than socialist ideologies
integration tends to be driven by functional and technocratic needs. it relied on the permissive consensus of the people
The economic area which covers the 12 countries that have so far joined the EU's single currency
Convention (on the Future of Europe)
A body set up in 2002 to debate alternative models and visions of the European Union, and to prepare a draft Constitution which could be used as the basis of discussion in the intergovernmental conference of 2004
Regional economic and social policy; a principle which favors the reduction of regional and social disparities across the European Union
The use of the established process of the established process of EC decision making in which involves a commission legislative initiative being agreed by the council, and now usually the European Parliament. It also implies that the Court of Justice will have jurisdiction over any decision taken
An economic agreement that extends co-operation beyond a customs union, to provide for the free movement of goods services, capital, and labor
Refers to the network of procedures of committees designed to oversee the agreement of implementing measures taken by the EU's executive bodies
Exchange Rate Mechanism
The main element of the European Monetary system-a mechanism which aimed to create a zone of monetary stability within Western Europe
The Treat sometimes known as the EU Constitution, which was signed on 24 October 2004, but which has not been ratified, not least because of the negative referendums in France and the Netherlands
A theory of European integration proposed by Wayne Sandholtz and Alec stone sweet which draws on neo-functionalismm, and provides an alternative approach to Moravcsik's liberal intergovernmentalism
Treaty of Rome
Signed in 1957, the Treaty of Rome formally established the European economic Community (EEC) and EUROATM, the European Atomic Energy community
(1888-1979) One of the founders of the European integration project. The driving force behind the 1950 Schuman Plan which led to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), Monnet became the first head of the ECSC's high authority. He continued to play an active role in European integration throughout his life, though often h=behind the scenes.
A complicated three-stage decision-making procedure that involves both the EU Council and the European Parliament in making European legislation, thereby enhancing the role of the Parliament in the legislative process. It was introduced in the Treaty on European Union at Maastricht (Article 251, ex. 189b) and simplified in the subsequent Amsterdam Treaty. Codecision refers to decision making jointly by the Parliament and the Council.
Optimum currency area (OCA)
A theoretical notion which implies that monetary union will only work effectively when the states participating are economically vary similar.
A theory of European integration which privileges the role of states
-based off of Realism- states are rational actors that exist in an anarchical world.
a theory of European integration that favors states, based on realism:international politics concerns the interaction of self-interested states in an anarchic environment and no global authority can keep order, so the state interest is about survival
--neo-realism sees states as self-regarding actors co-existing in an anarchical, however through international cooperation there is a potential for order. Therefore, the EU helps create order in the anarchical society
-intergovernmentalism is characterized by state centrism, intergovernmentalism privileges the role of the nation state sees integration as a zero-sum game
-claims integration is limited in policy areas that deal with sovereignty
Revises the Nice version of the TEU; was signed in 2007 and, after successful second Irish referendum in October 2009, entered into force in December 2009.
Legislative instruments that specify the aims to be achieved, but which generally leave the question of how to achieve those ends up to national governments or their agents.
An approach to the EU policy making which is an alternative to regulation and which involves more informal means of encouraging compliance than hard legislation.
The principle that tries to ensure that decisions are taken as close as possible to the citizen
A mechanism identified by neo-functionalist theorists who claimed that sectoral integration in one area would have knock-on effects in others, and would 'spill over', thereby increasing the scope of European integration.
European Coal and Steel Community
Established by six states in April 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, the ECSC allowed for the pooling of authority over coal and steel industries. As it was based on a 50-year treaty, the ECSC ceased to exist on 23 July 2002.
An approach to the study of EU politics which emphasizes the interaction of the many different actors who influence European policy outcomes.
The idea that a regime's procedures for making and enforcing laws are acceptable to all its subjects; the right to rule.
The rules that member states had to meet before they could join Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
The third stage of the codecision procedure, at which point, an equal number of representatives of the Parliament and Council get together to try to work out an agreement acceptable to all.
The expansion of the European Union to include new member states.
A general concept, which implies the act of combining parts to make a unified whole - a dynamic process of change. European integration is usually associated with the intensely institutionalized form of cooperation found in Western Europe after 1951.
Defined in various ways (see Chapter 22). For example, it may refer either to the process of European integration itself, or as a short-hand for the 'Europeanization of domestic institutions, politics and identities'.
European Central Bank (ECB)
Established in Frankfurt in 1999, the ECB is responsible for the single monetary policy of the 'euro-zone'.
Intergovernmental conference (IGC)
Structured negotiations among the EU's member states, which usually leads to a treaty revision.
The idea that subsets of member states might engage in European integration projects that do not involve all existing members; contrasts with the notion of the EU as a uniform Community.q
Theory of knowledge, which accounts for the way in which knowledge about the world is acquired.
The acquis is the Community patrimony, the body of common rights and obligations which bind the member states together. It includes the content of the Treaties, legislation, international agreements and other measures.
Co-operation that involves sovereign states, and which occurs on a government-to-government basis, rather than implying the extensive involvement of supranational actors
European Monetary System (EMS)
A regulated exchange rate system established in the EC in 1979 after failures to set up an Economic and Monetary Union earlier in the decade. The EMS aimed to promote monetary co-operation and exchange rate stability.
A legislative procedure introduced in the Single European Act (article 252 ex 198c), which allows the European Parliament a second reading of draft legislation. Since Amsterdam, it is now very little used, as most policies originally falling under cooperation now come under the codecision procedure.
Single European Act (SEA)
The first of the large-scale Treaty revisions, signed in 1986. It came into force in 1987, and served as a 'vehicle' for the single market programme.
Qualified majority voting (QMV)
System of voting in the EU Council, which attributes a number of votes to each member state (very roughly related to their size). A majority of these votes (currently 71%) is needed for legislation to be agreed in the Council, implying that some states will be outvoted, but will have to apply the legislation all the same.
The idea promoted by Fritz Scharpf in 1988 that while it might be increasingly difficult in future for further integration to take place, it will also be impossible for states to go back on agreements already made. As such states were 'trapped' within the European integration process.
Treaty revision agreed at Nice in December 2000, signed February 2001, and ratified in 2002. It introduced a number of institutional reforms which paved the way for the enlargement of the Union in 2004 and after.
European Political Co-operation (EPC)
Foreign policy co-operation prior to Maastricht, set up after 1970 and formalized by the Single European Act.
How does spillover happen politically?
National and supranational actors make package deals in order to establish common agreement in a range of policy areas
Emphasizing the significance of concepts, ideologies, and social practices to our understanding and making of (literally constructing) the world, The ideas of the European Community European security community and European citizenship is constructed through the use of languages, the development of ideas and the establishment of norms
The composition of the Pillars After the Maastricht treaty
After maastricht treaty
Established in 93' it comprised not just supranational but also intergovernmental cooperation in foreign policy and the JHA
critics said the idea made the EU less union like because of the lack of complete uniformity both politically and legally
The European Community
(EC,ECsC, and EuroAtom)
Common Foreign and security policy (CFSP)
Justice and home affairs
Pillar Structure After Amsterdam
shifted JHA activity from pillar three to pillar 1 referred to as communitarization and pillar three was more focused on Police and Judicial cooperation in criminal
Common Foreign and Security Policy
The European Communities (EC, EUROATOM, and EAEC-European Atomic Energy Committee)
Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal matters
Critiques of Intergovernmentalism
-Hoffman makes a rigid demarcation between high and low politics (with the spillover) Admits that spill over can exist as functional spill over but will never make it to high politics.
-The European Political Cooperation (EPC) disproves the theory
-The fact that the EU has a Single currency which takes authority away from states
-The Common Foreign Security Policy takes power away from the states
-Hoffman was also criticized for downplaying the constraints imposed on states as a consequences of their interdependence.
critiques of liberal intergovernmentalism
-Does not fit the facts (specific to EU politics studies)
-Applies theory cases to intergovernmental negotiation where economic integration is the main concern where decisions were taken on the basis of unanimous voting in the council
It cannot Explain how the EU works in modern politics
-Moravcsik's conception of the state is too narrow (Too simplistic with economic and geopolitical concerns)
-The theory understates the constraints faced by key policy makers
-No full account to supply side actors
-The commission functions as more than a facilitator
-According to Wincott, Liberal Inter governmentalism is not a theory because it does not have spelled out conditions to be refuted or disproved and should be coined an "Approach" rather than a "theory"
Critiques of Neofunctionalism
Member states interests are on top (without the voice of the minority/majority groups heard)
European cooperation is realistically ignored
Undue emphasis on supranational component in regional integration
Does not involve European citizens in momentous process of change, undemocratic.
Ignores the context on how the European Union was formed and why supranationalism was
Agenda setting role for the council
the ability that is possessed by different members of the EU. For instance, those that are members of the Council of European Union have the ability to set the agenda based on intergovernmental lines pending on whether their member nation assumes the role of control (presidency, head of committees, etc. Though this is something that is notable for the intergovernmental abilities of the European Council, it is also obvious the the agenda setting role takes place in the commission as well. When it does occur in the college of commission, however, the agenda setting role is generally set in favor of a supranationalist agenda.
Agenda setting role for policies under the first pillar are held by the European Commission
states are locked in integration through a path of dependence
the more states integrate the more future options become constrained
integration can only be stopped by a dramatic break with practice "a critical juncture"
ex a war, economic crisis
A theory created by Andrew Moravcsik in 1993. Moravcsik's theory of liberal intergovernmentalism suggests that the classic theory of liberalism set precedent for a number of integrationist policies of the EU. The theory of Liberal intergovernmentalism suggests that nation states' governments are the major actors responsible for integration. He claims that states are rational actors that decided to integrate because there will be a mutual benefit through cooperation. As a result of observation, Moravcsik's analysis suggests that there will be an extent of supranational limited powers to further the extension of benefits at the state level. They feel as though it is appropriate to create common policies and institutions to gain security within each state.
-has 22 directorates (DGS, who are equivalent to the administrative components of national government depts)the political leadership is served by an administrative staff
-they cover all policy fields:sectoral (DG Agriculture) and functional (DG Budget and Personnel)
-recruitment into the services is based on meritocracy, and a quota system regulates the intake of new recruits on a geographical basis
-there are between 300-400 temporary working committees and 150 advisory groups are established to do the preparatory work of the commission
-national governments behave less intergovernmentally in commission committees than in council committees
-As a whole the commission has to rely on member state administration since the--Commission itself does not possess agencies at this level
consequently it results in a considerable variation in administrative practice across
Treaty of Paris 1951
Established the ECSC
Treaty of Rome 1957
Established the ECC the European Economic Community
Merger Treaty 1965 or Treaty of Brussels
Merger ECSC, EUROATOM, and EEC institutional structure one
Single European Act 1986
Act that set the ideal for the establishment of a Single Market objective
Maastritcht Treaty OR TEU 1992
Created the European Union and led to the creation of a single currency, the Euro
Treaty of Amsterdam 1997
Greater emphasis on the citizen rights of individuality more democracy with increased powers of the European Parliament community area of freedom security and justice beginning of CFSP
Treaty of Nice 2001
Reformed the institutional structure so that the EU may expand eastward
Treaty of Lisbon
Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to QMV in several policy areas in Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such majority to a new double majority, a more powerful EP forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European council and a High representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding. Amends the TEU and the TFEU (Which is the treaty of Rome). 80 amendments (Bill of Rights)
What were the 6 original countries in EU?
Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 1957.
Who entered in 1973?
(Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom)
Who entered in the 80's?
1986 (Spain, Portugal)
Who entered in the 90's?
1995 (Austria, Finland, Sweden)
Who entered int eh 2000's?
2004 (Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia).
2007 (Bulgaria, Romania)
Founding fathers of the EU...
Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
Sir Winston Churchhill, British prime minister
Robert Schuman french foreign minister
Jean Monnet, french economic advisor and politician
Alcide de Gasperi italian prime minister
Paul Henri Belgium prime minister
Altiero Spinelli italian politician
Crisis of the 60s-
President of France refuses to vote. Necessary Luxembourg Compromise
more intensive integration should be pursued
in 1965 France withdrew all French participation in Council Ministers business except for that dealing with low-level and routine technicalities which brought the EEC to a halt
The college of commissioners-
-27 members,powerhouse of the commission and headed by a nominated president(who has become more important since the 90s) by national governments and approved by the European Parliament,based on consensus voting, and they meet once a week
-Each commissioner is allocated a portfolio such as agriculture or competition which are normally involve oversight of one commission dept, by policy the president of the commission, they have a problem with finding enough serious jobs for the commissioners
--each commissioner has a private staff of about 7 (a cabinet) who keep the commissioner informed on important developments in policy areas and they can be hired or fired at the discretion of the commissioner
---the cabinet members also have a staff of their own
What are the functions of the European Commission?
has the agenda setting role for things that fall under the first pillar(even if initiatives originate from the outside
range of f(n)s: policy initiation, the monitoring of policy implementation, the management of European programs. an important external relations role; also mediator amongst the 27 member states and between the European Parliament and the european council
What are the functions of the Council of Ministers (The Council of the European Union)?
The exact membership of the configuration depends upon the topic; for example, when discussing agricultural policy the Council is formed by the twenty-seven national ministers whose portfolio includes this policy area (with the related European Commissioner contributing but not voting).
Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and approves (or rejects) the appointment of the Commission as a whole. It can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure.
have formal approval power over all legislation
and shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council (except in a few areas where the special legislative procedures apply). It likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament
European Court of Justice
interpret EU law and make sure that it is equally interpreted across EU states
make decisions about the legality of trade
How does the Council of the European Union make decisions?
interpret EU law and make sure that it is equally interpreted across EU states
make decisions about the legality of trade
How does the EP make decisions?
Codecision procedure:joint acts of parliament and council
European Court of Justice
has to do with neo functionalism believed that ppl involved on a regular basis in the supranational policy process will tend to develop European loyalties
The European Commission
A hybrid organization somewhere between executive and bureaucracy
provides broad guidelines for the different nations
Range of functions policy institutions the monitoring of policy implementation the management of European programs an important external relations role; also mediator the 27 member states and between the EU Council and the European Parliament (EP)
It asserts its own European identity
Intergovernmentalist see the Commission as insignificant, but institutionalist view it as having an independent impact on policy outcomes
The European Parliament
it began as the Common Assembly
the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU) since 70s and has 754 members
SEA (87')gave EP introduced the cooperation procedure for some legislation and allowed the EP to propose amendments and draft legislation
The TEU or Maastricht introduced the codecision procedure
has the ability to exercise and irrevocable veto
does not formally possess legislative initiative
made up of multi-national parties based on political ideologies
most of the work is done within the 20 committees
27 heads of state
28th seat is with the President of the European Commission
meets 2x a year formally (June/December) and at least 2x a year informally to discuss specific themes (e.g. institutional reform,budget, enlargement, foreign security/ defense policy, etc.)
Introduced in the 1970s and formalized by 1974
Council of the European Union
center of the EU decision making
extensive legislative/executive power
All proposals must be a approved by the commission before becoming law
Function: To provide leadership and steer in the direction of European Integration (diplomacy, and foreign affiars)
It is made up of different ministers that pertain to a specific policy area (Agriculture, Finance, Environment, etc.)
participation of national ministers from each member state and hold domestic responsibility for their own sector
9 different councils
1.Widest Brief = General Affairs and the external relations council (GAERC)
4.Employment, social policy, health, and consumer affairs
6.Transport, Telecommunications, Energy
7.Agriculture and fisheries
9.Education, youth, culture
Some meet every few days, some 2x a month, some 6x a year, etc.
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