74 terms

APUSH - Period 8 and 9 Review

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affirmative action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
black nationalism
Spurred by Malcolm X and other black leaders, a call for black pride and advancement without the help of whites; this appeared to be a repudiation of the calls for peaceful integration urged by MLK.
client regime
A country that is dependent on the economic or military support of a larger, more powerful country
Cold War liberalism
A combination of moderate liberal policies that preserved the programs of the New Deal welfare state and forthright anticommunism that vilified the Soviet Union abroad and radicalism at home. Adopted by President Truman and the Democratic Party during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
collective bargaining
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
collective security
A system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
consumer republic
occurred in post WWII, increase in manufacturing and production of consumer goods, idea that a bigger american economy means a bigger share for everyone
containment
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
counterculture
The culture of the young people who rejected mainstream American society in the 1960's seeking to create an alternative society based on peace, love, and individual freedom
cultural conservatism
Opposed to big govt, New deal liberalism, gun control, feminism, gay rights, welfare, affirmative action, sexual permissiveness, abortion and drug use.
decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
deindustrialization
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
detente
Nixon's policy towards communist nations. It is a relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and USSR in the '60s and '70s when the two powers signed treaties limiting nuclear arms productions and opened up economic relations
domino theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
economic feminism
the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.
environmentalism
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
Evangelical Protestantism
Supported Reagan in the presidential election of 1980
grassroots movements
Political movement that's driven by local people that used community members that tried to make change happen locally.
identity-based movements
the civil rights movement had some of this, based on who the people are
institutionalized racism
racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
labor feminists
Working women who revived the feminist movement by campaigning for maternity leave and equal pay
law-and-order issues
Nixon promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon's efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency
left-wing and right-wing politics
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military-industrial complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
moderate Republicanism
member of the internationalist wing of the party the genial Eisenhower saw himself as a conservative on money issues and a liberal on issues dealing with human beings. Despite his rhetoric to stop the "creeping socialism" of the New Deal his administration expanded social security and Unemployment benefits, established the Department of Health Education and Welfare, and increased federal aid to education. He genuinely tried.to balance the budget but only three of the eight he submitted to Congress were balanced.
mutual coexistence
U.S.S.R.'s plan during the cold war to remain peaceful with capitalist countries
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
paternalism
Employers provide housing, education, activities, and other benefits for their workers in an effort to take care of them.
proxy wars
The conflicts that happened between the allies of either the USSR and the USA and the USA and the USSR e.g. Afghanistan and the USSR and Vietnam and the USA
restrictive covenants
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reverse discrimination
the practice or policy of favoring individuals belonging to groups known to have been discriminated against previously.
right-to work laws
prohibits union security agreements, or agreements between labor unions and employers, that govern the extent to which an established union can require employees' membership, payment of union dues, or fees as a condition of employment
rights liberalism
The conviction that individuals required government protection from discrimination. This version of it was promoted civil rights and women's movements and focused on the identities-such as race or gender-rather than the general social welfare of New Deal liberalism.
rust belt
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
service economy
where the majority of people earn their living by providing a service rather than manufacturing a product
silent majority
label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
stagflation
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
Third World
Term applied to a group of "developing" or "underdeveloped" countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
traditional values
The idea of this has come to be associated with a particular vein of Evangelicalism and politics embodied by such politicians as Reagan. Reagan called for greater respect for these of the US that included family, religion, hard work, and patriotism.
axis of evil
Created in 2002 by George W. Bush to show the "bad guys" which include: Iran, Iraq, and N. Korea
bipolar world
Instead of multiple world powers after WW2 there emerged only 2, US and USSR. This formed the basis for the Cold War as continental Europe was in pieces.
culture wars
refers to a displacement of classic economic conflicts that animated 20th century politics in the advanced democracies by newly emergent moral and religious ones
debtor nation
A national government that owes money to international financial institutions such as the World Bank, foreign governments, or to foreign lenders. A debtor nation will have a negative balance of trade because the amount of money coming into the country from outside sources is greater than the amount of exports and money that the country sends out.
entitlement programs
Programs such as unemployment insurance, disability relief, or disability payments that provide benefits to all eligible citizens.
ethnic chauvinism
The idea of being excessively loyal toward and constantly believing in the superiority of a racial or ethnic group. Marcus Garvey, the KKK, etc.
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. It was used for example by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
faith-based agenda
Public policy that traces its roots in religious ideology. Example: Pro-Choice legislation.
financial deregulation
The removal of or reduction in legal rules and regulations governing the activities of financial institutions. In the 1980s Pres. Reagan believed the economy would improve for everyone if major financial institutions were subject to much less governmental oversight.
free markets
Markets that are allowed to operate without undue interference from the government
globalization
A set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders.
grassroots conservatives
Popular movements originating from the people (like the US Civil Rights Movements did in the 1950s and 1960s) but for politically and socially conservative causes. Phyllis Schlafly; against women's liberation movement and the Tea Party Movement are examples of Grassroots conservatives.
libertarian spirit
A US political party that advocates minimal government regulation; supported Reagan
majority-minority nation
when the "minority" population makes up the majority of the nation
multiculturalism
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
multinational corporation
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
multipolar world
The new reality of the world in which there were several great powers, not just two (China, Japan, Western Europe, the US, and the USSR)
national debt
Reagan's massive military spending combined with less revenue from taxes contributed to a record national debt.
neoconservatism
Modern American political philosophy that opposes big-government approaches to domestic issues yet favors an interventionist and aggressive foreign policy; most neoconservatives advocated American intervention in Iraq in 2003.
Pacific Rim
Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.
Reagan democrats
The nickname given to southern and blue-collar workers who began to vote Republicans in 1980 due to their socially conservative values.
religious right
an evangelical conglomeration of ultraconservative political activists, many of whom support the Republican Party
Rockefeller Republicans
"Moderate Republican / liberal Republican" - faction of the GOP who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller
states' rights
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
supply-side economics
An economic theory, advocated by President Reagan, holding that too much income goes to taxes and too little money is available for purchasing. The solution is to cut taxes and return purchasing power to consumers.
trickle-down economics
An attempt to improve the economy by providing big tax cuts to businesses and wealthy individuals (the supply side). These cuts encourage investment, which then creates jobs, so the effect will be felt throughout the economy; also known as supply-side economics.
Lyndon Johnson
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
FDR
Implemented the New Deal
GI Bill
Law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations like college.
Changes in immigration
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Election of 2000
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How does regional identity influence American politics in the 21st century?
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What was the impact of deregulation on consumers, the federal bureaucracy, workers' rights, and the environment?
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Why did conservatives oppose the Great Society liberalism?
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