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18 terms

Chapter 10: Cell Growth and Division

Chapter 10 Biology
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cell division
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
sister chromatids
two identical cells
interphase
the "in-between" period of growth
G1 Phase
cells do most of their growing
G2 Phase
when DNA is replicated the cell enters this phase, many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
S Phase
key proteins associated with the chromosomes are synthesized during this phase
mitosis
part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
interphase
the cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles
prophase
the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. the centrioles seperate, and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear membrane breaks down
metaphase
the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere
anaphase
the sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
telophase
the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes. Two new nuclear membranes form.
cytokinesis
the cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes
centrioles
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
spindle
a fanlike microtuble structure that helps separate the chromosomes
internal regulators
proteins that respond to events within the cell
external regulators
proteins that respond outside the cell
cancer
uncontrolled cell growth