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Chapter 10 Biology

cell division

the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

sister chromatids

two identical cells


the "in-between" period of growth

G1 Phase

cells do most of their growing

G2 Phase

when DNA is replicated the cell enters this phase, many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced

S Phase

key proteins associated with the chromosomes are synthesized during this phase


part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides


the cell grows and replicates its DNA and centrioles


the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. the centrioles seperate, and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear membrane breaks down


the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere


the sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart


the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes. Two new nuclear membranes form.


the cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes


two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope


a fanlike microtuble structure that helps separate the chromosomes

internal regulators

proteins that respond to events within the cell

external regulators

proteins that respond outside the cell


uncontrolled cell growth

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