50 terms

51-100 APUSH Terms by Chioma O.

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McCullough v. Maryland
The Supreme Court ruled that Congress had implied powers under the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution to create the Second Bank of the United States and that the state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the Bank. This case strengthened the power of the federal government.
Adams-Onis Treaty
A treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. In the provisions, the United States ceded to Spain its claims to Texas west of the Sabine River. The treaty also mandated that Spain relinquish its claims to the country of Oregon
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state by coupling its admission with that of Maine as a free state and declaring that the latitude 36" 30'- the Southern boundary of Missouri- would serve as a permanent line dividing slave from free states. The dispute demonstrated southerners' increasing concern about the national balance between slave and free states.
First Lowell Factory Opened
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1823 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building. The Lowell mills were the first hint of the industrial revolution to come in the United States. It encouraged growth of financial businesses, and it was the first opportunity for some women to work
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Election of 1824
With four candidates in the field, none received the majority of the electoral votes. Clay was eliminated and the choice among the others fell to the house of representatives. Clay gave his support to Adams, helping to elect him. He soon became secretary of state in Adams's cabinet and was charged with making a "corrupt bargain
Indian Removal Act
It was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.
Maysville Road Veto
This was when President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill that would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington, KY. and Maysville, KY., on the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of Kentucky. Jackson vetoed the bill on the grounds that federal funding of intrastate projects of this nature was unconstitutional.
Nat Turner's Revolt
Nat Turner's Rebellion (also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55 to 65 people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the Southern United States. The rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23, 1831. There was widespread fear in the aftermath of the rebellion, and white militias organized in retaliation against the slaves.
Nullification Crisis
The Nullification Crisis of 1832 centered around Southern protests against the series of protective tariffs (taxes) that had been introduced to tax all foreign goods in order to boost the sales of US products and protect manufacturers in the North from cheap British goods. The South saw the protective tariffs as severely damaging to their economy. The convention declared that the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and unenforceable within the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833.
Jackson destroyed bank of the united states
In 1833 president Jackson removed all federal funds from the bank and said the gov wouldn't use the 2nd bank of the U.S. any more.(Jackson thought bank symbolized how wealthy suppressed the poor and wanted to take power away from the rich)
Panic of 1837
Financial crisis that occurred during the administration of martin van buren, banks called in loans and restricted credit, unemployment rose in almost every american city, depression lasted from 1837-1843. Panic caused by Andrew Jackson from the creation of specie circular and his refusal to renew the charter of the 2nd bank of the U.S.
Horace Mann began school reform in massachusetts
He created Massachusetts Board of Education 1837, he was the cause to the common school movement which pushed for better developed, tax funded school system. Allowed for schools to have high quality education
Trail of Tears
Through his presidency Andrew Jackson advocated " Indian Removal." He soon signed the Indian Removal Act in which Americans took over Indian land in exchange for them to move into the land from the Louisiana Purchase, this forced Natives off of their lands and gave them a treacherous walk to their new home where thousands died from the foot journey.
Election of 1840
Election between William Henry Harrison(whig party) and his vice president john tyler and Martin Van Buren(democratic) for reelection in this time of depression. Harrison won but died shortly after his victory making John Tyler the new President.
Manifest Destiny first used
Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan used this word to describe a common settler religious belief in 1845 that God himself wanted them to move more westward Even though the Natives had already settled their missionary settlers wanted to convert them which was another reason to move.
Annexation of Texas
Texas was added into the Union as The Republic of Texas in 1845 as the 28th state to join the union. Texas was gained through the negotiation of the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 and Texas independence from Mexico in 1848.
Mexican- American War
First U.S. conflict on foreign soil between U.S. and Mexico on the border along the Rio Grande, President Polk wanted to expand the U.S. in terms of Manifest Destiny to spread the U.S. across the Pacific Ocean. U.S. won and Mexico lost about ⅓ of its territory(present day California, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico)
Wilmot Proviso
It was a bill placed after the Mexican and U.S. war that prohibited any type of slavery on the territories gained from the war however it was never passed through both houses, though it lead to the change of thought about slavery.
Mormons Migrated to Utah
After the assassination of their leader and persecution Mormons of Nauvoo in Illinois moved westward in migration through the Oregon Trail and eventually found Salt Lake City in Utah and moved there.
Seneca Falls convention
The convention took place in upstate New York in 1848. The convention is where Women and Men went to discuss Women's rights, this is where they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which to get women the right to vote.
Mexican Cession
Cession was a historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. This war was very controversial because the question of the expansion of slavery into the newly acquired territory was high questioned.
California Gold Rush
Thousands of miners travelled to Northern California after news reports that gold was discovered at the Sutter's Mill in January 1848.
Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state, open New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in Washington D.C.,and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the North and South, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery.
Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. the book persuaded more people, particularly northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Kansas- Nebraska Act
This Act was set up so that each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery, and people who wanted slavery moved to Kansas.
Creation of the Republican Party
Emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
Dred Scott v. Standford
Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen
Lincoln - Douglas Debates
seven debates that the two argued about important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election
John Brown's Raid
Brown's raid was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee. He originally asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass to join him when he attacked the armory, but illness prevented Tubman from joining him and Douglass believed his plan would fail and did not join him for that reason.
Election 1860
Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Democrats Stephan A. Douglas and John C. Breckenridge. Ultimately leads to the Civil War with southern secession occurring right after.
Southern secession
Soon after Lincoln's election, seven southern states (first being SC) declared they were seceding for the union. They soon created their own government and became to Confederate States of America.
Fort Sumter
The site of the first battle of the Civil War. First shots of the Civil War after Major Robert Anderson occupied the unfinished fort following South Carolina's secession from the Union which initiated a standoff with the state's militia forces
Homestead Act
In May 1862, it opened up settlement in the west allowing any American to put in a claim for up to 160 free acres of federal land. By the end of the Civil War, 15,000 homestead claims had been established, and more followed in the postwar years.
Morrill Land-Grant Act
It was a major boost to higher education in America. The grant was originally created to establish institutions in each state that would educate people in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other professions that were practical at the time.
Emancipation Proclamation
This was an executive order made by Lincoln in order to officially free the slaves in the southern states. It played a vital part in ending the Civil War and worked towards complete abolition.
Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
These battles were turning points in the Civil War. They proved the war was now going in the North's favor
Appomattox Court House
This is the site where the Civil War ended. Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia which ended the war.
Abraham Lincoln assassination
John Wilkes Booth shot President Abraham Lincoln at a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. It happened right after the end of the Civil War.
Freedman's Bureau
It was established in 1865 by Congress in order to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South after the Civil War.The Bureau provided food, housing and medical aid, established schools and offered legal assistance as well as attempted to settle former slaves in Confederate lands confiscated or abandoned during the war.
13th Amendment
This amendment abolished slavery after the Civil War.
Congress then has the power to enforce this via legislation.
Purchase of Alaska
The U.S. buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. This was significant because it got rid of other world powers on the continent.
Radical Reconstrucion began
This period came after the Civil War in which Northern political leaders created plans for building a new government in the South. This was in order to slowly welcome the South back into the union and prevent corruption.
Andrew Jackson impeachment trial
Johnson provided the Radicals with a chance to impeach him when he fired Stanton anyway. The House of Reps voted 126 to 147 to impeach him.
14th Amendment
This amendment declared anyone born in the America is a US citizen and ALL citizens are equally protected by the Constitution. This was monumental and put the government responsible for enforcing this law.
Transcontinental Railroad completed
The railroad connected the west and east coasts of the continental US. This made a big impact in promoting westward expansion and grew industries
Standard Oil created
John D. Rockefeller created Standard Oil in Cleveland. The Standard Oil Trust controlled 90 percent of oil refining in the United States. (One of the first monopolies)
Knights of Labor created
The Knights of Labor were founded in 1869 as a secret society of garnet workers in Philadelphia, but emerged as a national movement by 1878. They believed that fraternity was harnessed to labor reform, and intended to set up factories and shops that would lead to a cooperative commonwealth.
Wyoming gave women right to vote
Wyoming was admitted to the Union as the first state allowing women to vote. It would not accept statehood without the suffrage.
Battle of Little Big Horn
The battle of Little Bighorn occurred in 1876. The battle took place between the U.S. Cavalry and northern tribe Indians, including the Cheyenne, Sioux, and Arapaho. Sitting Bull decided to wage war against the whites for their refusal to stay off of tribal lands in the Black Hills.