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Chapter 23 Terms
Terms in this set (19)
Soviet Union (Communist Russia)
Long tense period of conflict between Communist Soviet Union and the US. The US is so freaked out because there is no way to deal with Communists. All the Communists want is to take over the world. Life and death struggle between Capitalism and Communism.
Goal: create a world in which all people are treated fairly and equally.
Created in the 1900's by Karl Marx, a German. He believed that Capitalism allowed the rich to get richer and the poor to get poorer. He says that it will result in a "bloody revolution" in which the workers will rise up and kill the upper class (the difference between socialism and communism is that communism requires the revolution). The Communist Party will create a dictatorship in order to teach people how to share in an equal society. As people learn, there will be no need for government and the communist dictatorship will wither away, leaving a perfect society.
Communism can only happen if the whole world becomes communist, that is, if all people agree to treat each other fairly and with equality.
The goal of communism is to create a bloody revolution which destroys capitalism and democracy, allowing the communists to conquer the world. Communists believe this will happen no what. It is inevitable.
George Kennan and the Long Telegram
Kennan was an American Diplomat and Specialist in the Soviet Union. He comes up with the idea of Containment.
Means that the goal of the U.S. should be to prevent the spread of communism from anywhere it has not reached already. You don't have to fight them, but push them back politically and economically when communism tries to spread. This is easy because Communists believe that they will eventually win with no hurry. They won't push too hard into resistance. However, if Communists feel threatened militarily, they will fight. If we contain communism long enough, their own people will rebel against the dictatorship.
1947. Gives military aid (money to buy weapons; help strengthen their army) to both Greece and Turkey because of the scare that they might turn to communism.
This does end up preventing them from becoming communist.
A doctrine means that we will help any place that needs our help to drive out communism.
Significance: This is considered a revolution in our foreign policy, because until the Truman Doctrine, we always tried to stay out of eternal affairs. But now we will go out and try to help.
1947. The second pillar to containment. George C. Marshall pledged the U.S. to contribute billions of dollars to finance the economic recovery of Europe. Even after being offered the same help, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe refuse. The plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history. Western Europe does not become communist.
1948. Soviet Union put a blockade on Berlin, cutting off all of its transportation to and from in order to prevent the Western countries from gaining strength.
1948. An 11 month air lift followed the blockade in order to supply the people with food and medical support. 2.5 million people helped.
1949. North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created pleading mutual defense against any soviet attack for America, Canada, and Western Europe. It became the first long term military alliance between U.S. and Europe since the civil war.
This is the first time that the U.S. has promised to go to war.
The Warsaw Pact is Russia and Eastern Europe's version of NATO
1949. China turns communist which terrifies Americans. The communists now control majority of the world, even if it's only a few countries. The U.S. refuses to recognize the new government of China.
1950-53. Fought between Communist North Korea and Anticommunist South Korea. It began by the North invading the South, wanting to unify the country under Communist rule. America joined the war to help the South, even though it wasn't a democracy. American troops fought the first land battle of the Cold War.
It is an example of containment because the South stays democratic, but it also shows the danger that it is too military.
1953. War is still "alive" but not active. The line of Armistice is what separated the two side of Korea.
Alger Hiss Case
Accused of being a Russian spy. Not found guilty of spying, but of perjury. It's significant because Americans now feel like there could be many Russian spies in the U.S.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
The most sensational Spy Trial at the time. Julius and Ethel were a working class Jewish couple who were convicted of conspiracy and accused of sending American secrets to the Soviet Union. Ethel was innocent, but convicted on hope that it would make her husband plead guilty.
The judge at their hearings thought they had helped "cause" the Korean War with their actions.
If a sweet couple could be spies, anyone could.
Joseph R. McCarthy
A little-known Wisconsin senator gave a new kind of voice to anti communism crusade. He said that he had a list of names of communists working for the government, but he could never prove it.
Entered the political vocabulary as a shorthand for character assassination, guilt by association, and abuse of power in the name of anticommunism
Showed McCarthy as a bully and a liar. Watched by many people because it was broadcast on tv.
Anti-Communism grew in America with many supporters with roots from Eastern Europe and Christians.
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