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Terms in this set (64)
Types of Communicable Diseases
What % of the burden of disease lies in low- and middle-income countries?
What is the burden of communicable disease considered?
It is considered unnecessary and many can be prevented or treated
transmitted from animal to animal, animal to human, or human to human
Spread and contracted through food
spread through bodily fluids
spread through a vectorinhalation (tuberculosis), non-traumatic contact, and traumatic contact
Smallpox, polio, measles, diphtheria, tetanus. Hep B, meningitis, influenza etc
Treated with Mass Chemotheray
Hookworm, lymphatic filariasis etc
Treated through vector control
Malaria, Dengue, yellow fever
Treated with improved water, sanitation, hygiene
Treated through behavioral change
HIV, sexually transmitted infections.
an individual with a particular disease
Case Fatality Rate
the proportion of persons with a particular condition
reducing the incidence and prevalence of a disease to an acceptable level
reducing the incidence of a disease in a specific area to zero
Emerging Infectious Disease
a newly discovered disease and its transmission
termination of all cases of a disease and is transmission and the complete elimination of the disease-causing agent
an organism that loves in or on another organism and takes it nourishment from that organism
Re-emerging Infectious Disease
an esisting disease that has increased in incidence or has taken on few forms
What % of total deaths and total DALY's lost annually occurred in low- and middle-income countries?
36% of total deaths, 40% of total DALYs lost
Who has the highest relative burden of deaths from communicable diseases
South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
What is a result of communicable diseases?
Constrain health and development of children, having an effect on education and productivity
What do communicable diseases have a strong stigma and discrimination with?
HIV, TB, and others
What is a result of the costs of treatments?
Costs of treatment burden families
What do high rates of communicable diseases do?
Reduce investment in a country's development
When do resistant forms of disease emerge or re-emerge?
When bacteria, parasites, and viruses are genetically altered
Why are global health problems critical?
They can arise anywhere, at anytime, and spread rapidly
What is something that limits ability to treat infection?
Key Factors Contributing to the Emergence and Re-emergence of Infectious Diseases
- Microbial adaptation and change
- Human susceptibility to infection
- Climate and weather
Consequences of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Disease
- Direct costs of treating disease
- Indirect costs include declines in tourism and trade
- Increased costs of treating a drug resistant case
Addressing Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Sensitive surveillance systems
- Rapid detection of new outbreaks
- Mechanisms for effective containment
- Willingness to share information with other countries
How is HIV/AIDS Spread?
through unprotected sex, birth or breastfeeding, blood, or transplanted tissues
What dies HIV/AIDS do to the body?
Attacks the immune system, leaving the body susceptible to opportunistic infections
Where are the highest rtes of HIV/AIDS located?
Costs and Consequences of HIV/AIDS
- Enormous impacts in high prevalence countries that go beyond morbidity and mortality
- A person with full-blown AIDS cannot work and will become dependent on others for care
- Direct cost of treatment high for the poorest countries
Addressing the Burden of HIV/AIDS
- Focus on prevention of new infections
- Successful efforts have included strong political leadership and open communication
- Approach to prevention must vary with nature of epidemic
- Efforts need to combine education and behavioral change, bio-medical approaches, and structural approaches
What is one of the most common types of diseases you can get from HIV/AIDS?
What is the 8th most important cause of death worldwide?
How is Tb spread?
Spread through aerosol droplets
What does HIV do to TB?
HIV dramatically increases chance of developing active TB
What are the risk factors of TB?
living in crowded circumstances, under-nutrition, inadequate health care
Where does TB increase?
Increase in multi-drug resistant cases
The Costs and Consequences of TB
- Costs to families, communities, and countries is very high
- Large number of people sick, long course of illness
- Stigmatized condition
- Economic growth of a country inversely correlated with the rate of TB
- More people with TB = less economic growth
TB is an opportunistic infection of what?
TB is considered the leading cause of death of
adults who are HIV-positive and not on antiretroviral therapy
What dos WHO recommend?
testing all HIV-positive people for TB, and all those with TB for HIV
What is the most common type of drug resistance?
Inappropriate use of drugs
What % of global DALYs are lost annually due to Malaria?
What is Malaria considered in low- and middle-income countries?
9th leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries
What percent of sub-saharan African children account for the global burden of Malaria?
What is the cause of Malaria?
Parasites carried from one person to another by Anopheles mosquito
Who are at high-risk of anemia and death?
Pregnant women and fetuses
How often do individuals have Malaria?
Up to 5 times per year
Why are indirect costs greater than direct costs of treatment?
Due to lost days of work
What does Rollback Malaria suggest?
Economic costs in countries with a high burden are equal to 1.3% of GDP per year
Addressing the Burden of Malaria
- Prompt treatment of those infected
- Symptoms include: excessive sleeping, fever, cold sweats (shivering)
- Intermittent preventative therapy for pregnant women
- Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets for people living in malarial zones
- Indoor residual spraying of homes
- Getting artemisinin, a new drug, into use to delay advent of resistance
What is Diarrheal Disease Responsible for?
1.5 million deaths per year- 20% of all childhood deaths
What was the significant decline of diarrheal disease due to?
better nutrition, disease recognition, oral rehydration therapy
Why does diarrheal disease most significantly impact the poor?
because of poor housing, lack of refrigeration, poor personal and community hygiene
What are the most common causes of childhood death?
diarrheal diseases and pneumonia
Addressing the Burden of diarrheal disease
- Disease Prevention Strategies
- Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months
- Improved complementary feeding, introduced at 6 months
Access to clean water supply and sanitation
- Case Management Interventions.
- Oral Rehydration Therapy
- Zinc Supplementation
Some Neglected Tropical Diseases
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