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Chapter 39: normal anatomy and physiology of the female pelvis and 40 the sonographic and Doppler evaluation of the female pelvis (study guide)
Terms in this set (43)
What is the physiologic status of pre-puberty?
Which muscles groups may be seen in the false pelvis along the lateral sidewall of the pelvis?
Which ligament contains the uterine blood vessels and nerves?
The normal size of the menarchal uterus should measure _____ centimeters (cm) long and _____ cm wide.
6-8 in length, 3-5 wide
What are the layers of the endometrium and their function?
Superficial functional layer (zona functionalis): superficial layer of glands and stroma (supporting tissue) that sheds with menses.
Deep basal layer (zona basalis): a thin layer of the blind ends of endometrial glands that regenerates new endometrium after menses.
Which structures lie above (superior) to the utero-ovarian ligament, round ligament, and tubo-ovarian blood vessels?
The ovary produces two hormones. Estrogen is secreted by _____ whereas progesterone is secreted by the ______.
Follicles; corpus luteum
The release of an egg from the ruptured follicle is termed _____?
The vagina has two sources of blood supply; they are the _____ and _____.
Uterine artery; vaginal artery
The ovary receives its primary blood supply from which artery?
Which portion of the Fallopian tube is the most coiled?
The ovaries are suspended from the _____ aspect of the broad ligaments.
The left ovarian vein drains into which other vein?
Left renal vein.
The ovaries are laterally supported by which ligaments?
Suspensory (infundibulopelvic) ligament.
The ovaries are medially supported by which ligaments?
A mature follicle is known as a _____ follicle.
A mature follicle typically measures _____ cm right before ovulation.
The endometrium demonstrates the "three-line" sign in which of the phases?
The rectouterine space is also known as the ______?
Posterior cul-de-sac (pouch of Douglas)
The pelvis recess between the anterior bladder wall and the pubic symphysis is called the ______.
Space of Retzius
Abnormally heavy or long menses is termed _____.
Define dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and polymenorrea.
Dysmenorrhea: painful periods.
Menorrhagia: abnormally heavy or long periods.
Oligomenorrhea: abnormally short or light periods.
Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation.
Polymenorrea: when the menstrual cycle occurs at intervals of less than 21 days.
Depending on the menstrual cycle, the inner lining of the uterine cavity that appears echogenic to hypoechoic on ultrasound is which structure?
The state after reaching puberty during which menses occur every 21-28 days.
Which are the small vessels found along the periphery of the uterus?
Which plane refers to a horizontal plane through the longitudinal axis of the body to image structures from anterior to posterior? (Used when performing TV scanning).
The endometrium is at its greatest thickness and echogenicity with posterior enhancement in which phase?
Which technique uses a catheter inserted into the endometrial cavity with the insertion of saline to fill the endometrial cavity to demonstrate abnormalities within the cavity?
With endovaginal sonography, the cervix of an anteverted uterus is seen on the ______ of the screen, where's the fundus of the anteverted uterus is found on the ______ of the screen.
Right side; left side
Retroverted would be opposite
The thickness of the endometrium should usually be measured in which plane?
What are the layers of the uterus?
The serosa or perimetrium: external layer, the serosa reflects the anterior surface of the uterus at the isthmus.
The myometrium (muscular middle layer): it is the thickest layer of the uterus and is primarily smooth muscle that is longitudinal and circular.
The endometrium (mucous membrane): glandular tissue lining the uterine cavity is the endometrium.
The thin outer layer of the uterus is separated from the medial layer by which vessels?
In transvaginal scanning, the scanning plane that is 90 degrees from the sagittal plane is the _____ plane. (Image looks similar to transverse plane in TA scanning)
Nabothian cysts are found in which anatomic structure?
Arcuate artery calcifications are observed in patients who are _____.
Which scanning technique is the best way to measure the cervical-fundal dimension (length) of the uterus?
Why is it important to have a full bladder when imaging the female pelvis on TA scanning?
The full bladder displaces the bowel and its contained gas from the field of view and "flattens" the a reflexes uterus slightly so that it is more perpendicular to the transducer angle.
Acoustic window to view the pelvic anatomy, serves as a "cystic" reference, and displaces bowel into false pelvis.
Thinnest layer of Fallopian tube
Best time to do a sonohysterography
6-10 days after period
Ovaries produce 2 hormones
Estrogen; secreted by follicles.
Progesterone; secreted by corpus luteum
Patient should be in what position when doing translabial scan
Supine ; with a wedge to elevate hips
The right ovarian vein drains into what
Two layers of the endometrium
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