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51 terms

Science Test on Volcanoes

To study for our science test on April 2.
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lava flows
Rivers of red hot lava.
magma
Hot liquid that is created deep underground beneath the earth's crust.
vents
Holes where magma comes to the earth's surface.
pyroclastic material
Magma and pieces of rock that fly through the air in a wreck of destruction during a violent eplosive eruption.
volcano
A build-up of pyroclastic material or magma on earth's surface.
water
This thirst-quinching natural liquid causes eruptions to be more explosive.
silica
This mineral block causes eruptions to be more violent the more it has of it.
volcanic blocks
Large pieces of pyroclastic material that is made up of rock.
blocky lava
a cool stiff lava that can't move very far from the vent.
pahoehoe
A type of lava that is slow-moving, and is like wax. It resembles rope.
Aa
A brittle stiff lava.
volcanic bombs
Blobs of magma that harden in the air.
lava
magma that has been exposed to oxygen.
pillow lava
Lava that forms during underwater eruptions.
lapilli
Pebble sized bits of pyroclastic material that vary between 2 and 64mm in diameter.
volcanic ash
Forms when stiff magma quickly expands. Is less than 2mm in diameter.
shield volcanoes
Built out of layers on runny, non-explosive lava. They are large and non-explosive.
cinder cone volcano
A volcanic cone created entirely from pyroclastic material. They are small and explosive.
composite volcanoes
They are built out of pyroclastic material and layers of runny non-explosive lava. Are sometimes explosive, and sometimes aren't.
stratovolcano
Another name for composite volcano.
crater
A funnel shaped pit and the main vent or a volcano.
caldera
Forms when a magma chamber empties, and the ground above it falls in, creating a large, sinking depression.
fissures
Large cracks in the earth's crust.
lava plateaus
They form similarly to sheild volcanoes; built out of layers of runny, non-explosive lava. They aren't volcanoes.
Mauna Kea
An example of a shield volcano.
Paricutin
An example of a cinder cone volcano.
Mount Fuji
An example of a composite volcano.
extinct volcano
A volcano that hasn't erupted in recorded history and most likely will never erupt again.
dormant volcano
A volcano that doesn't show signs of erupting but has erupted in recorded history.
active volcano
A volcano that shows signs of erupting.
seismograph
An instrument that measures earthquakes. If many earthquakes that are small occur in a reletively short amount of time around a volcano, it may mean that the volcano is going to erupt soon.
tiltmeter
An intrument that measures the difference of the sope of a volcano that can change, leading scientists to believe whether or not it will erupt. It isn't 100% accurate.
rift
A deep crack.
hot spots
When tecontic plates meet directly below a mantle plume, it forms these.
mantle plumes
columns of rising magma.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: A rift and a fissure are the same thing.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera is smaller than a crater.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera and a crater are formed similarly.
true
TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera is much larger than a crater.
true
TRUE OR FALSE: Aa is a stiff, brittle lava.
true
TRUE OR FALSE: The more silica, the larger the eruption.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: The less water, the larger the explosion.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is another name for shield volcano.
true
TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is another name for a composite volcano.
true
TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is not a cinder cone volcano.
false
TRUE OR FALSE: Cinder cone volcanoes are most often the biggest type of volcano.
cinder cone volcano
CHARACTERISTICS: A small, explosive volcano that is made entirely from pyroclastic material.
shield volcano
CHARACTERISTICS: A gigantic, non explosive volcano made from repeated layers of non-explosive lava.
composite volcano
CHARACTERISTICS: A combination completely of the other 2 types of volcanoes, forms by both repeated layers of runny lava and by pyroclastic material, its' size can vary, and can be both explosive and non-explosive.
divergent boundary
GOOD TO KNOW: This boundary almost always forms a non-explosive volcano.
convergent boundary
GOOD TO KNOW: This boundary usually forms explosive volcanoes.