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Rosenhan (1973) - Sane in Insane Places
Terms in this set (20)
How do we know precisely what constitutes normality or mental illness? the classification system used to diagnose mental illness is bought to question by Rosenhan, who claims that psychological categorization of mental illness can be invalid, harmful, and misleading.
1. to show that psychiatrists cannot reliably distinguish between sane & insane people as well as the psychological criteria for diagnosis not being valid
2. to investigate whether salient characteristics (symptoms) reside in the patients themselves or in he environment in which they're observed in
Study 1 - Method
-technically a field experiment with participant observation in which Rosenhan & pseudo-patients faked illness to hide among real patients
IV - lack of symptoms (being faked)
DV - staff's response
12 mental institutions across 5 different states - done to obtain a representative sample
the Ps were the doctors and nurses (staff) while the pseudo-patients were the stooges
-all stooges made up of psychologists, a painter, psychiatrist, pediatrician, housewife
Description of symptoms and entry/access procedure standardized
1. pseudo patients called a hospital & made appointment
2. they arrives at office & complained of hearing voices - often unclear but said 'empty, hollow, & thud' of same sex
3. made up names, jobs, and auditory hallucinations only
-all 12 attempts to be admitted were successful
-pseudo patients were admitted with mental illness 100% of time 11 = schizoprenia & 1 = manic depression
-Reliability - meaning all psychiatrists made same decision to admit in 12 different mental institutions
-Validity - people with fake mental illness were diagnosed with it; psychiatrist couldn't distinguish between sane and insane
-may suggest incompetence but not necessarily
-why diagnose sane people as insane?
*sane people don't call to make appointment, don't claim to hear voices - a true symptom of schizophrenia
-creates doubt within psychiatrist - is it better to send sick person away (negligence) or to test further to be sure & admit? - they were being cautious
How long did it take for pseudo patients to be released?
-length of stay ranged from 7 days to 52 days with an average of 19 days. once released, they were dubbed with schizophrenia in remission.
Findings (3) - Observation Results
-lack of monitoring = very little contact w doctors & strong sense of segregation between staff & patients
-distortion of behavior = all normal behavior was interpreted according to mental illness (schizophrenia) leading to false assumptions
*note taking = pseudo patients never asked why they were taking notes but was recorded by nurses as symptom of condition
*pacing corridors out of boredom - seen as anxiety, implying symptom of disorder
-it's assumed by the nurses that if a person is in the ward of mental institution, then they must be mentally ill. The situation of being in mental institution determines assumptions made by nurses.
-stickiness of psychodiagnostic labels - once labeled, hard to remove
-35/118 real patients were suspicious of pseudo patients, claiming them being sane journalists - YET staff never suspected
-staff had little contact with patients & at times, were verbally & physically abusive
-no privacy in bathrooms
-to convince staff of their sanity, pseudo patients tried casual conversations, asking questions about release & such but rarely got a full answer - only brief w/o eye contact
-findings all show powerlessness & depersonalization
*powerless to do anything with little rights because they weren't of 'sound of mind'
*staff didn't want to converse with an abnormal person - almost non-person & pseudo patients could've faced solitary or extreme treatment such as electro convulsive therapy
-staff at one hopsital doubted that'd ever happen to them, so Rosenhan set out to test that. Staff was informed that in the next 3 months, 1 or more pseudo patients will attempt to be admitted - 193 were admitted & many were suspected of being pseudo patients. However, Rosenhan sent none.
-major concerns on reliability & validity of psychiatric diagnosis and although study 1 admitted pseudo patients, study 2 claimed real patients who were admitted as being possible fakes.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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