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41 terms

Architecture

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Structure
anything that is built or constructed, has a plan
Post and Lintel
horizontal beams laid across vertical supports
Tensile Strength
ability of a material to withstand bending
Compressive Strength
ability to withstand compression or crushing
Doric
greek column; simple capital
Ionic
greek column; scrolled capital
Corinthian
greek column; fancy capital
Colonnade
a row of columns
Arch
can define large spaces; stress is transferred out from center; keystone does not depend on tensile strenth; requires a butress to support walls
Tunnel Vault
arches placed back to back to enclose space
Groin Vault
when two tunnel vaults intersect at right angles
Ribbed Vault
protuding masonry resulting from a groin vault
Round (Roman) arch
...
Horseshoe (moorish) Arch
Lancet Arch
Ogee Arch
Trefoil Arch
Tudor Arch
Dome
arches jointed at the top and legs form a circle; expansive, freer space inside a structure, base can be circular or angled
Pendentive
used for a dome with a square base; triangular space between domes and arches; transfers weight and stress
Spire
steeple like structure
Cantilever
overhanging beam or floor supported only at one end
Buttress
supporting wall for an arch to prevent legs from caving outward
Flying Buttress
overcame bulk of stone buttress, light in appearance, used on gothic churches
Media
what the structure is made from
Function
purpose the building was originally designed for; can change later
Context
Physical (environment in which structure is located), Historical (time, place, and culture that created it)
Line (element)
where two parts come together
Color/Value (element)
colors used on the interior or exterior
Shape/Form (element)
outline of the building, if viewed from air
Texture (element)
can be interior or exterior
Space (principle)
area in and around a building
Balance (principle)
distribution of weight
Rhythm (principle)
repeated use of an element
Contrast (principle)
use of very different elements
Gradation (principle)
gradual change in elements; step pyramid
Emphasis (principle)
calling attention to one part using elements and principles
Scale (principle)
size compared to people
Proportion (principle)
comparison of size of parts and size of whole
Variety (principle)
use of different elements
Unity (principle)
use of similar elements to tie structure together

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