39 terms

History: Civil War


Terms in this set (...)

Louisiana Purchase (1803)
Opened west to settlement
Missouri Compromise (1820)
First dispute about slavery in the western territories; brought attention to both the political and economic ramifications of adding new states
Texas annexation (1845)
Created increased tensions between Northern and Southern states over whether Texas would be slave or free; also feared by New England states as a potential rival in Congress; eventually the annexation of Texas served as the catalyst to the start of the War with Mexico
Manifest Destiny (1845)
Phrase coined by a New York newspaperman, John O'Sullivan, to describe America's inevitable ownership of the western lands ("from sea to shining sea"); it was believed by many that ownership of the western lands was America's divine or God-given right
War with Mexico (1846-1848)
President James Polk goaded the Mexicans into war by sending General Zachary Taylor into the disputed territory between Texas and Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Ceded Mexican lands including New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California to the US for $15 million. New Mexico Territories would become slave; California would be free.
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
US purchased 30,000 sq miles from Mexico to try to extend the Transcontinental railroad
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Proposal to keep the Mexican Cession free from slavery
Treaty with Great Britain (1846)
Opened the Oregon Territory to American settlement
Mormon Pilgrimage (1846-47)
Brigham Young led Mormons seeking to avoid religious persecution in the east to the Utah Territory where they experienced incredible success
Gold Rush (1849)
- In 1848, just after the US acquired California from Mexico, gold was discovered in California that led to a mass migration of gold speculators to California in 1849. These gold diggers came to be known as 49ers. By 1850, California's population mushroomed to 80,000 people, thus qualifying it for statehood
- Omnibus Bill proposed by Henry Clay that called for California entering as a free state, while placing no restrictions on slavery on the rest of the southwest; abolish slave trade in Washington, DC, but permit it to exist there; strengthen the fugitive slave law
Compromise of 1850
When the Omnibus Bill was rejected by Congress, Stephen Douglas helped to push each of the part of the bill through individually
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Stephen Douglas convinced congress to pass a bill which would bring popular sovereignty to the Kansas and Nebraska Territories; acceptance of the bill meant that the Missouri Compromise was repealed, opening the door to slavery in the West; many abolitionists and anti-expansion men were outraged
"Bleeding Kansas"
Kansas became the battleground for anti-slavery and pro-slavery factions; John Brown and his abolitionist followers killed 5 proslavery civilians at Pottawatomie Creek, KS
Caning of Charles Sumner
Heated discussion of the act on the Senate floor by Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner led to his being caned by South Carolina representative Preston Brooks who was defending the honor of his uncle who he felt Sumner had insulted (May 26, 1856)
Controversial Lecompton Constitution (Nov. 1857)
Submitted to the US Congress for approval, however it is fortunately shot down
Political Divisions and Changes
- 1848: Whigs split into Conscience Whigs (anti-slavery) and Cotton Whigs (pro-slavery)
- Democrats feeling the strain of slavery issue, too
- Free Soil: anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs
- Whigs: Zachary Taylor; Democrats: Lewis Cass; Free Soil: Martin van Buren
- Taylor won
March 1850
John C. Calhoun died
- Whigs still divided
- June: Henry Clay died
- October: Daniel Webster died
Democrats: Franklin Pierce; Whigs: General Winfield Scott (Whigs fatally split)
Democrats won election with Franklin Pierce
Congressional legislation became very politicized
Soon compromise replaced by polarization
Death of Great Triumvirate left political hole that was not adequately filled by successors
- American (Know Nothing) Party emerged: anti-foreigner
- Republican party founded on platform opposed to extending slavery to the West
Elections of 1856
Featured Democrats, Republicans, and Know Nothings
Outcome revealed the political sectionalism; no longer did any party have national appeal
1858 Illinois Senate elections
- Lincoln-Douglas debates
- Free Soil vs. Popular Sovereignty
- Douglas won re-election to the Senate, however, Lincoln gained national recognition
Election of 1860
- Lincoln elected in spite of only winning 39.8% of the popular vote
- Southerners feel disenfranchised with South Carolina and the rest of the Lower South (Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) seceding within months of the election
Social Upheaval
- 1845: A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave published
- Harriet Beecher Stowe writes Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) helping to drive a wedge even deeper between North and South
Dred Scott decision (March 1857)
Missouri Compromise declared unconstitutional while slaves are denied rights of citizens
John Brown's Raid of the Harper's Ferry, VA military arsenal
John Brown's Raid of the Harper's Ferry, VA military arsenal
Civil War
December 20, 1860: South Carolina seceded; six other states from the Deep South soon follow
April 12, 1861: Fort Sumter fell; the war began
Northern strategy:
- Blockade the coast
- Control the Mississippi River
- Keep Europe out of the war
- Capture Richmond
Southern Strategy:
- Defend their lands
- Gain European help
- July 1861: First Battle of Bull Run or Manassas
- May 1862: Peninsula Campaign
- June 26-July 2: Seven Days' Battles
- In the west, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson captured; Battle of Shiloh reveals true nature of war
- Naval battle of the Monitor and the Merrimack (the Virginia) brings in a new era of naval warfare
September 17, 1862
- Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg, MA); bloodiest single day of the war
- 8000 men dead
September 22, 1862
- Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
-The meaning of the war took on additional meaning; many in the North were not happy
- January 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamation went into effect
July 1-3, 1863
- Battle of Gettysburg; Last chance for Lee's Confederate army to infiltrate the North
- Lee asked Pickett to march across field to attack the union --> did not turn out well as Pickett lost all his men
July 4, 1863
- Siege of Vicksburg came to an end; Union gains control of the West and the Mississippi River
- Came up on Vicksburg from its back side
- People of Vicksburg got starved out if they had no access to supplies from land or river
March 1864
General U.S. Grant was named by Lincoln to lead all Union forces
May-Dec 1864
- William T. Sherman led the "scorched earth" campaign to bring the South to its knees
- Sept to Dec: "March to the Sea"; Sherman led massive attack of South from Atlanta to Savannah
Fall 1864
- Lincoln re-elected; he defeated George McClellan, the candidate for the "Copperheads"
- Lincoln and Republicans saw re-election as a national mandate to continue the war to its end with slavery done
- Democrats were running on an anti war platform --> copperheads
- 13th amendment abolishes slavery
June 1864-April 1865
Siege of Petersburg; fall of Richmond
April 9, 1865
Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House
April 14, 1865
Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford Theater