Evolution Chapter 15

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Terms in this set (...)

Anagenesis
Gradual modification of form over evolutionary time, without branching speciation.
Background extinction
A standard or "baseline" process of extinction occurring outside a period of mass extinction.
Burgess Shale
A fossil bed in British Columbia, Canada, containing extensive fossil evidence from the Cambrian explosion.
Cambrian explosion
The relatively rapid evoluation of extensive phenotypic diversity during the early part of the Cambrian period (543-490 million years ago).
cladogenesis
Modification of form associate with branching speciation.
Cope's rule
The observation that mammalian clades tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time.
endemic
Found in only one specific area of the world
fossil
The remains or traces of a once-living organism. This term is usually used for remains that are greater than 10,000 years old
fossil record
The history of life on Earth as recorded by fossil evidence
K-T mass extinction
A mass extinction that occurred about 65 million years ago at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.
law of superposition
The observation that fossils found lower down in the sediment at a particular locality are older than those found closer to the surface.
mass extinction
A large-scale extinction of many taxa over a relatively short period of evolutionary time.
Paleomagnetic dating
The method of estimating fossil dates based on shifts in the Earth's magnetic field by measuring the alignment of metal particles in the substrate in which the fossil was found.
phyletic gradualism model
The hypothesis that new species arise by a gradual transformation of an ancestral species through slow, continual change.
pseudoextinction
A phenomenon in which a population changes by anagenesis over evolutionary time, until it is so different from the ancestral population that it is reclassified as a new species.
punctuated equilibrium
The hypothesis that major evolutionary changes, including speciation, do not occur through a slow, gradual process. Instead, stasis - the absence of change - is the rule during the vast majority of a lineage's history. But when evolutionary change does occur in lineages, it is rapid, and typically leads to branching speciation (cladogenesis).
radiocarbon dating
A technique for dating geological strata by using the decay rate of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12.
Signor-Lipps effect
The lag between the last observed fossil of an extinct species and the actual data of extinction. This effect can cause paleotologists to date an extinction earlier than it actually occurred.
species selection
A process of differential speciation and/or extinction that may drive some of the macroevolutionary trends across taxa.
How old does something have to be in order to be considered a fossil?
more than 10,000 years old
Based on the abundant fossil records, only 10,000 years ago, two-thirds of the
150 genera of the Pleistocene megafauna that were present 40,000 years earlier had gone extinct. What seems to be the reason for this relatively recent extinction of so many large mammal species?
A. Global warming seems to be a contributing factor in the loss of these large mammal species.
B. Hunting by humans, habitat fragmentation, and the ice age played a large role in this extinction.
C. This extinction was probably due to new pathogens.
D. All of the above
B. Hunting by humans, habitat fragmentation, and the ice age played a large role in this extinction.
Fossils are the remains of past-living organisms that could form in several different ways. Which of the following describes fossilization by dissolution?
A. Water seeps into fossils and breaks it down, but the shape of the fossil is preserved in the sediment around, leaving an image of the organism.
B. Organisms are fossilized into a gooey-tree resin called amber.
C. Minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which were once part of a living organism, are slowly replaced through chemical processes by such minerals as iron and silica.
D. Organisms fossilize as layers of thin carbon spread on sandstone and shale.
A. Water seeps into fossils and breaks it down, but the shape of the fossil is preserved in the sediment around, leaving an image of the organism.
It is very difficult to find the fossil remains of the entire organism. Which of the following might be a factor for paleontologists to use when choosing sites to search for the best fossils?
A. Paleontologists are unlikely to be the first researcher to be searching for fossils from their organisms of interest. Instead, they often choose sites where others have already uncovered related fossils.
B. Paleontologists will typically focus on the sites that best match the geological and abiotic conditions in which fossilization may have occurred.
C. All of the above.
D. Paleontologists often use predictions derived from phylogenetic reconstruction, biogeography, or molecular genetics to explore a particular area.
C. All of the above.
In paleobiology one of the main concepts is that fossils found lower down in the sediment at a particular locality are older than those found closer to the surface. This is often called the law of:
A. radiometric dating
B. superposition
C. fossilization
D. none of the above
B. superposition
Radiocarbon dating (14^C) is a useful tool for measuring absolute time for about ________ years.
A. 5,000,000
B. 50,000
C. 500,000
D. 150,000,000
B. 50,000
In all of the extinctions have ever occurred on Earth, the majority of the lost species was due to:
A. periodic extinctions
B. background extinctions
C. mass extinctions
D. none of the above
B. background extinctions
Which of the following is correct regarding the endemic species as a model for the study of background extinction?
A. There is no difference between global and endemic species when it comes to the study of extinction.
B. It is much easier to study extinction in endemic species because such local extinction becomes synonymous with global extinction.
C. It is much better to focus on species that live everywhere in the world and prevent their extinction.
D. Extinctions are not very common in endemic species.
B. It is much easier to study extinction in endemic species because such local extinction becomes synonymous with global extinction.
Why did the human introduction of feral pigs on Santa Cruz Island accelerate the extinction of the native fox and increase the population of skunks?
A. Skunks were the main prey of the island foxes.
B. Increased pig numbers attracted the golden eagle, which is a fierce predator of foxes.
C. Pigs were the main prey of the island foxes.
D. A and B only.
D. A and B only.
Over the last few decades, there has been a major decline in amphibian populations worldwide, including the extinction of many amphibian species. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the amphibian decline?
A. The extinctions seem to be due to the increased predation of the amphibians around the world.
B. One of the major factors driving these extinctions may be infectious disease.
C. The current rate of extinction in amphibians is much higher than typical background extinction rates.
A. The extinctions seem to be due to the increased predation of the amphibians around the world.
What type of infectious disease is devastating populations of frogs in North America, Alaska, and Australia today?
A. chytridiomycosis, which interferes with the ability of amphibians to transport chemicals across the epidermis.
B. an incurable water mold that feeds on the amphibian larvae.
C. Various bacterial infections that cause sterility in frogs
D. highly contagious viral infections, which are spread by human contamination of the waters.
A. chytridiomycosis, which interferes with the ability of amphibians to transport chemicals across the epidermis.
The Hawaiian Islands have gone through at least 2 waves of human colonization (in prehistoric times and again starting in the 17th and 18th centuries). Of the approximately 125 to 145 bird species that once inhabited the Hawaiian Islands before human colonization, 90 to 110 are now extinct. Which of the following is most likely TRUE when it comes to these extinctions?
A. Early human colonization devastated the larger species of birds through hunting.
B. Late human colonization devastated the natural habitats and food sources, such as flower nectar and fruit of the native species.
C. There is no known cause for these extinctions.
D. Both A and B.
D. Both A and B.
As opposed to background extinction, a mass extinction typically refers to the loss of many groups of organisms over a broad geographic range. Which of the following mass extinction in Earth's geological history was the most devastating for the marine families?
A. Devonian
B. Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
C. Traissic
D. Permian
D. Permian
What is the meaning of the phrase "dead clade walking," which was coined by Jablonski in 2002?
A. Following the mass extinctions, such as in the Permian, there is nothing to be found in many strata.
B. Many of the remaining clades that survived a period of mass extinction go extinct during the following geological time period.
C. The new clades, which emerge following the mass extinction, quickly die out due to the lack of nutrients and other resources.
D. Both A and B.
D. Both A and B.
The famous K-T extinction occurred about 65 million years ago, at the boundary of the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, with profound effects on many different taxa, including the dinosaurs. Which is the widely accepted as the cause of this extinction?
A. An impact with an extraterrestrial body, such as an asteroid, as evidenced by the layer of clay demarcating the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary which contains iridium.
B. A giant supernova had exploded near Earth and the radiation produced and the climate changes.
C. This mass extinction occurred gradually over the course of millions of years, likely as a result of gradual changes in temperature, humidity, sea level, and other environmental properties.
D. None of the above.
A. An impact with an extraterrestrial body, such as an asteroid, as evidenced by the layer of clay demarcating the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary which contains iridium.
Jablonski and his coworkers found that, for slugs and snails (gastropods) of the Late Cretaceous period, the key to a broad geographic range at the species level and increased chances of surviving the mass extinction at the K-T boundary was the nature of their larval stage. Which if the following best describes a stage that contributes to the increased geographic ranges of the gastropod taxa?
A. planktotrophic larvae that feed in the open water on very small prey and develop into adults at a relatively slow pace.
B. any type of larvae that feed in closed water pools and develop into adults at a faster pace.
C. nonplanktotrophic larvae that feed in closed water pools and develop into adults at a relatively slow pace.
D. All of the above.
A. planktotrophic larvae that feed in the open water on very small prey and develop into adults at a relatively slow pace.
Paleontological studies on a lineage of Bryozoan (whose fossils preserve many of their morphological characteristics) show a pattern of evolution with little or no change for long stretches of time. Occasionally however, speciation occurred in a burst of change and diversification. This is an example of:
A. phyletic gradualism
B. slow evolutionary change.
C. punctuated equilibrium
D. all of the above
C. punctuated equilibrium
Evolutionary biologists are very interested in understanding the patterns and processes that guide the tempo and mode of evolution. In specific clades they are studying they sometimes point to trends (patterns of directional change over time). One such trend is also known as Cope's rule. Which of the following statements are TRUE?
A. Cope's rule states that species in mammalian clades tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time.
B. Avian taxa appeared to follow Cope's rule throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
C. Cope's rule is universal.
D. Both A and B.
D. Both A and B.
3 graphs, showing 3 different types of evolutionary change in a hypothetical clade. Which graph represents an active evolutionary trend?
The C graph which shows the red leaning toward the right, away from the dotted line.