Terms in this set (595)

1.Traffic in slaves was not new; in the 15th century, African slaves were sent to Middle East and many European countries where they served as household help or agricultural workers. Discovery of the Americas in 1490s and the planting of sugar cane in South America and Caribbean changed slavery. Sugar cane trade required skill and large amounts of labor; the small American Indian population in the New World had been decimated by disease so not sufficient help; African slaves began to be shipped to Brazil and Caribbean to work on sugar plantations. As many as 10 million slaves transported to the Americas between 16th and 19th centuries. Europeans they bought slaves from local African merchants at slave markets in return for gold, guns, or other goods such as textiles or utensils. Local slave traders obtained their supply from nearby regions, but as demand increased, they moved farther inland to find their victims; some local rulers became upset by trade and fact that it was depopulating their kingdoms; many local rulers viewed the slave trade as a source of income. African middlemen - merchants, local elites or rulers - were active in the slave trade process and were able to dictate the price and number of slaves to European purchasers
2.the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas (middle leg of the triangular trade route); high death rate (nearly 10%) due to horrible conditions - 300 to 450 per ship, chained in holds without sanitary facilities or room to stand; 100 day journey to Americas; those who survived had little or no immunity to new diseases
The Northern Dutch that fought for independence against Spain. Their culture xand economy will flourish during the 1600s.
Dutch Political Independence In the Dutch Republic, each of the seven Dutch provinces had ______. Unlike the other continental nations, the Dutch were not ruled by an absolute ruler. Instead, political power passed into the hands of wealthy merchants.

Dutch Religious Toleration In the Dutch Republic, Calvinism was the dominant religion. However, Catholics, Lutherans, Anabaptists, and Jews all enjoyed ____________. This helped create a cosmopolitan society that promoted commerce.

Dutch Economic Prosperity The Dutch Republic was Europe's leading commercial power during most of the seventeenth century. Amsterdam remained Europe's financial center until the French Revolution. Shipbuilding played a key role in the Dutch economy. The Dutch fleet of 10,000 ships was the largest in the world. As trade routes shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, the Dutch replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe. Founded in 1609, the Amsterdam Exchange Bank quickly won a reputation as the safest, soundest bank in Europe. The Dutch East Indies Company displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the lucrative spice trade in the East Indies.

Dutch Artists They were commissioned by prosperous merchants who wanted paintings of themselves, families, possessions, land. They focused on painting individual and group portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes of everyday life. Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Jan Vermeer.

Dutch Economic Decline Caused by the Dutch Republic's costly wars with England and France.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Corsican-born French general who became First Consul in 1799 and emperor in 1804; after losing the battle of Waterloo in 1815, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena; ruled authoritatively; patronized the arts and sciences. Took power through a coup d'etat .
Napoleonic Code Put into place after Napoleon establishes himself as ruler of France; calls for universal male suffrage; right of private property; establishes National Bank of France which helped regulate money policy; appointed govt leaders important to Napoleon; grants forgiveness to those that had left France during Revolution; establishes a class of nobility; public education with teacher-training schools; science academies and scholarships

Napoleon's relationship with Catholic Church Grants new concordat with church promising that all Catholics in France had freedom of worship if Napoleon had the right to appoint bishops; Catholics were hurting due to nationalization and Napoleon wanted to help them.

Reasons for Napoleon's invasion of Russia Russia begins to ignore Continental System and they're sick of being under French rule; Napoleon thinks when they remove themselves that it is a military threat

Results of invasion of Russia (1812) Backfires for the French; Russia keeps retreating and burning down their land (scorched-earth policy) so French army can't live off of it; Russians eventually attack when French is weakened by the harsh winter and tens of thousands are killed; other nations under empire join in to defeat Napoleon

"Return" of Napoleon Napoleon eventually escapes Elba after Louis XVIII is restored to the throne; people quickly turn against Louis once Napoleon returns to France; brief period of repeated rule is referred to as the Hundred Days

Napoleon's final defeat Battle of Waterloo (1815); Napoleon's army is defeated by those who were previously part of his empire during the Napoleonic War period; he is exiled again to St. Helena where he stayed until his death

Should Napoleon be considered a great person of history? Yes; although his actions while emperor were a bit harsh and he essentially forced nations under his rule, he established the nationalism that France needed after the Revolution and led countries such as England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia unify under a common ground as the Congress of Vienna; also had great military strategy that can be admired;
The Revolution of 1848 in France The 1840s were hard economically and tense politically. /The government's unwillingness to consider reform led to Louis Philippe's abdication on February 22, 1848. /The revolutionaries quickly established universal male suffrage and other push forward a variety of reforms. /Voting in April produced a new Constituent Assembly. /Socialist revolution in Paris frightened much of the population. /Conflict between moderate republicans and radicals came to a head in 1848. /Three days of fighting in June left thousands dead and injured and the moderates in control

Feburary Rev.: working class and liberals opposed Louis Philipeeand his minister Guizot . It was caused because of electoral reform which Louis and Guizot opposed. Outcome: THe King, Louis Philipee was forced to abdicate the throne.

June Days Rev.: Workers sought war against poverty and the redistribution of income. Caused because of the government's decision to close the nation workshop. Louis Napoleon consolidated power and and became Emperor Napoleon of the second French Empire.

The Revolution of 1848 in Austria Revolution in France sparked revolutions throughout Europe. /The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary. /An unstable coalition of revolutionaries forced Ferdinand I to capitulate and promise reforms and a liberal constitution. /National aspirations and the rapid pace of radical reform undermined the revolution. /Conservative forces regrouped and the army crushed the revolution. /Francis Joseph was crowned emperor of Austria in December 1848

The Revolution of 1848 in Prussia After the fall of Louis Philippe, Prussian liberals pressed for the creation of liberal constitutional monarchy. /Urban workers wanted a more radical revolution and the Prussian aristocracy wanted no revolution at all. /A self-appointed group of liberals met in May in Frankfurt to write a federal constitution for a unified German state. /The Assembly was absorbed with the issue of Schleswig and Holstein. /In March 1849 the Assembly completed its draft constitution and elected Frederick William of Prussia the new emperor of the German national state. /Frederick William rejected the Assembly and retook control of the state
Causes:The main one was the assassination of the Austria-Hungary arch duke Frans Ferdinand by Serbian extremists. This upset Austria-Hungary and was a good excuse to go into war with Serbia.
Alliances between countries (eg France and England) caused tension between European countries and helped cause the war.
In this time people had a strong sense of nationalism and believed that their country was more important then others. People and their nations did not show an sympathy for other countries and did what every they can to support themselves, even if that means the killing of many innocent people.
European countries were also fighting over foreign land, particularly in Africa. If they could take over land they could have more taxes and a stronger army. This caused tensions between European countries and this also lead to war.

World War I was a military conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918 and involved most of the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This war (abbreviated as WW-I, WWI, or WW1) is also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War), and the War to End All Wars.

Result

Allied victory; end of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian Empires; foundation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East; transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers; establishment of the League of Nations.

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.

8-9 million through europe (destroyed a generation of european men), 4 mill russian, french and british soldiers. 2 mill germans, 100,000 u.s.
was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or main camp); Auschwitz II-Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III-Monowitz, also known as Buna-Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps.[1]

Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939. Birkenau, the German translation of Brzezinka (birch tree), refers to a small Polish village nearby that was mostly destroyed by the Germans to make way for the camp.

Auschwitz II-Birkenau was designated by Heinrich Himmler, Germany's Minister of the Interior, as the locus of the "final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." From spring 1942 until the fall of 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp's gas chambers from all over Nazi-occupied Europe.[2] The camp's first commandant, Rudolf Höss, testified after the war at the Nuremberg Trials that up to three million people had died there (2.5 million exterminated, and 500,000 from disease and starvation),[3] a figure since revised to 1.1 million, around 90 percent of them Jews.[4] Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Roma and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and tens of thousands of people of diverse nationalities.[5] Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and medical experiments.[6] Denis Avey, recently named a British Holocaust hero by the government of Britain, had escaped and spoke of conditions inside the camps.[7]

On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which by 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").
the Provisional Government called for an election of the Constituent Assembly, continued war against Germany, promised redistribution of land to peasants, however peasants burn and loot villages while the armies melt away; the Petrograd Soviet opposes the Provisional Gov, calls for termination of war, issues order no. 1 which forces the armies discipline too collapse, then Lenin and Bolsheviks return however they are soon blamed for an uprising so Lenin flees but Kerensky is named the new head of the Provisional Government; Kerensky is then threatened from the right by Gen. Kornilov who dispatches cavalry to restore order but the movement is defeated by the Bolsheviks, everyone wanted the soviets to be repressed so they are upset by this and blame Kerensky; with the food crisis however the public was willing to listen to extreme radicals; Lenins 4 points calling for peace, redistribution of land, committees of workers, and the soviets as supreme power also appeal to the public; the Bolsheviks win the majority of the government while Kerensky creates a pre- parliament and continues to lose popularity, Lenin calls for a Congress of Soviets who in Nov. 1917 take over all communication and end the Provisional Government and pronounce a Council of People's Comissaras.
Bolsheviks the majority party also know as "hards"; founder was Lenin who split the social democrats; also called Leninism; made up of small revolutionary elite, strongly centralized with out autonomy for national or other groups, strong authority at the top= central committee would determine doctrine and control everyone else, party strengthened by purges of anyone who developed deviations of opinion; no cooperation with other parties and in the end would impose view through a dictatorship of the proletariat; stood for rigid reaffirmation of Maxian fundamentals- dialectical materialism and ongoing class struggle
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