A painter, sculptor, architect, and poet from Florence, a true "Renaissance Man," works include: The Creation of Man, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and sculptures (Pieta, David, Moses)expressed human emotions such as anger , sorrow, and strength in his paintings and sculptures. What:
The English Civil War (1642-1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers). The first (1642-46) and second (1648-49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649-51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Kingdom of England
Parliamentarian victory; execution of king Charles I, establishment of the republican Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with first, the Commonwealth of England (1649-53), and then with a Protectorate (1653-59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.
Erasmus most influential, view on reform: Christianity is the guiding philosophy of daily life--emphasized inner piety, de-emphasized: sacraments, pilgrimages, fasts, veneration of saints/relics, his plan of reformation didn't work: overwhelmed by the other passion of the reformation, disapproved of Luther/Protestant reformers (Erasmus didn't want to destroy the unity, wanted to reform within the church), wrote: In Praise of Folly, New editions in Greek & Latin of the New Testament a three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa. the triangular trade Connected Europe, Africa and the American continents to form new Atlantic Economy. European merchant ships (England, France, Spain, Portugal, Dutch) carried European manufactured goods (guns, gin, cloth) to Africa; goods traded for a cargo of slaves; slaves shipped to the Americas and sold. European merchants bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, raw cotton and shipped them back to Europe. The Northern Dutch that fought for independence against Spain. Their culture xand economy will flourish during the 1600s.
Dutch Political Independence In the Dutch Republic, each of the seven Dutch provinces had ______. Unlike the other continental nations, the Dutch were not ruled by an absolute ruler. Instead, political power passed into the hands of wealthy merchants.
Dutch Religious Toleration In the Dutch Republic, Calvinism was the dominant religion. However, Catholics, Lutherans, Anabaptists, and Jews all enjoyed ____________. This helped create a cosmopolitan society that promoted commerce.
Dutch Economic Prosperity The Dutch Republic was Europe's leading commercial power during most of the seventeenth century. Amsterdam remained Europe's financial center until the French Revolution. Shipbuilding played a key role in the Dutch economy. The Dutch fleet of 10,000 ships was the largest in the world. As trade routes shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, the Dutch replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe. Founded in 1609, the Amsterdam Exchange Bank quickly won a reputation as the safest, soundest bank in Europe. The Dutch East Indies Company displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the lucrative spice trade in the East Indies.
Dutch Artists They were commissioned by prosperous merchants who wanted paintings of themselves, families, possessions, land. They focused on painting individual and group portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes of everyday life. Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Jan Vermeer.
Dutch Economic Decline Caused by the Dutch Republic's costly wars with England and France.
Balkan War (1912) pitted the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, and achieved rapid success. As a result of the war, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured and partitioned among the allies. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied with the peace settlement and with the Ottoman threat gone, soon started a Second Balkan War against its former allies.
Balkan War (1913) was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and its First Balkan War allies Greece and Serbia on the other side, with Romania and the Ottoman Empire intervening against Bulgaria. The outcome turned Serbia, an ally of the Russian Empire, into an important regional power, alarming Austria-Hungary and thereby indirectly providing an important cause for World War I.
Positivism was a theory developed by Auguste Comte, which claimed that by carefully studying facts and observations (in short, using the scientific method), one could formulate societal laws, which would be both correct and applicable to modern society. Positivism holds that the only "true" knowledge is that which can be discerned through the senses and one's own experiences, rather than through the use of reason. Comte expressed his ideas in his book, "System of Positive Politics, or Treatise on Sociology", a work that had a rather large impact on reform groups. Positivism was later rejected by some scientists, including Max Webber, who helped to found antipositivism as a response to positivism. Causes:The main one was the assassination of the Austria-Hungary arch duke Frans Ferdinand by Serbian extremists. This upset Austria-Hungary and was a good excuse to go into war with Serbia.
Alliances between countries (eg France and England) caused tension between European countries and helped cause the war.
In this time people had a strong sense of nationalism and believed that their country was more important then others. People and their nations did not show an sympathy for other countries and did what every they can to support themselves, even if that means the killing of many innocent people.
European countries were also fighting over foreign land, particularly in Africa. If they could take over land they could have more taxes and a stronger army. This caused tensions between European countries and this also lead to war.
World War I was a military conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918 and involved most of the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in history. This war (abbreviated as WW-I, WWI, or WW1) is also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War), and the War to End All Wars.
Allied victory; end of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian Empires; foundation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East; transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers; establishment of the League of Nations.
No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.
8-9 million through europe (destroyed a generation of european men), 4 mill russian, french and british soldiers. 2 mill germans, 100,000 u.s.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of primarily Jews, but also non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.The Holocaust took place in Europe between 1993 and 1945. Six million Jews were systematically and brutally murdered by the Nazis and their collaberators. Miliions of non-Jews, including Roma and Sinti(Gypsies), Serbs, political dissidents, people with disabilities, homosexuals and Jehova's Witnesses, were also persecuted by the Nazis. Was the continuing state of conflict, tension and competition that existed primarily between the United States and the Soviet Union and those countries' respective allies from 1945 (end of World War II) to 1989 (fall of Berlin Wall). throughout this period, the conflict was expressed through military coalitions, espionage, weapons development, invasions, propaganda, and competitive technological development, which included the space race. the conflict included costly defense spending, a massive conventional and nuclear arms race, and numerous proxy wars. was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or main camp); Auschwitz II-Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III-Monowitz, also known as Buna-Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps.
Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939. Birkenau, the German translation of Brzezinka (birch tree), refers to a small Polish village nearby that was mostly destroyed by the Germans to make way for the camp.
Auschwitz II-Birkenau was designated by Heinrich Himmler, Germany's Minister of the Interior, as the locus of the "final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." From spring 1942 until the fall of 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp's gas chambers from all over Nazi-occupied Europe. The camp's first commandant, Rudolf Höss, testified after the war at the Nuremberg Trials that up to three million people had died there (2.5 million exterminated, and 500,000 from disease and starvation), a figure since revised to 1.1 million, around 90 percent of them Jews. Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Roma and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and tens of thousands of people of diverse nationalities. Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and medical experiments. Denis Avey, recently named a British Holocaust hero by the government of Britain, had escaped and spoke of conditions inside the camps.
On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which by 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").
the Provisional Government called for an election of the Constituent Assembly, continued war against Germany, promised redistribution of land to peasants, however peasants burn and loot villages while the armies melt away; the Petrograd Soviet opposes the Provisional Gov, calls for termination of war, issues order no. 1 which forces the armies discipline too collapse, then Lenin and Bolsheviks return however they are soon blamed for an uprising so Lenin flees but Kerensky is named the new head of the Provisional Government; Kerensky is then threatened from the right by Gen. Kornilov who dispatches cavalry to restore order but the movement is defeated by the Bolsheviks, everyone wanted the soviets to be repressed so they are upset by this and blame Kerensky; with the food crisis however the public was willing to listen to extreme radicals; Lenins 4 points calling for peace, redistribution of land, committees of workers, and the soviets as supreme power also appeal to the public; the Bolsheviks win the majority of the government while Kerensky creates a pre- parliament and continues to lose popularity, Lenin calls for a Congress of Soviets who in Nov. 1917 take over all communication and end the Provisional Government and pronounce a Council of People's Comissaras.
Bolsheviks the majority party also know as "hards"; founder was Lenin who split the social democrats; also called Leninism; made up of small revolutionary elite, strongly centralized with out autonomy for national or other groups, strong authority at the top= central committee would determine doctrine and control everyone else, party strengthened by purges of anyone who developed deviations of opinion; no cooperation with other parties and in the end would impose view through a dictatorship of the proletariat; stood for rigid reaffirmation of Maxian fundamentals- dialectical materialism and ongoing class struggle