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78 terms

Fluids, Electrolytes, Acid-Base Balance, & IV Therapy

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acidosis
excess of acid or depletion
active transport
move substances from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
aldosterone
a mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Works in ther renal tubules to retain sodium and conserve water by reabsorption; increases urinary potassium excretion
alkalosis
a condition in which the pH of body fluids is above normal because of either a loss of acid or an accumulation of base bicrbonate
anions
negatively charged ions
antidiuretic hormone ADH
controls how much fluid leaves the body in the urine
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity
atrial natriuretic peptide
a hormone involved in the regulation of renal and cardiovascular homeostasis. It is produced in the atrium and helps to normalize blood pressure and volume
carpopedal spasm
a characteristic contraction of the fingers, also called Trousseau's sign
cations
positively charged ions
dehydration
when there is too little water in the plasma, water is drawn out of the cells by osmosis to equalize the concentration and the cells shrivel
diffusion
the process by which substances move back and forth across the membrane until they are evenly distributed throughtout the available space
edema
an accumulation of freely moving interstitial fluid (fluid in the spaces surrounding the cells)
electrolytes
molecules that atomic particles are capable of conduction an electric current
extracellular
fluid outside the cell
filtration
the movement of water and suspened substances outward thru a semipermeable membrane
hydrostatic pressure
pressure exerted by fluids
hypercalcemia
occurs when the serum calcium level is above 10.6 mg/dL
hyperchloremia
...
hyperkalemia
Occurs when the serum potassium level rises above 5.0 mEq/L.
hypermagnesemia
is present when there is a serum level above 2.1 mEq/L
hypernatremia
occurs when sodium level rises above 145 mEq/L
hyperphosphatemia
...
hypertonic
of greater concentration
hyperventilation
a rapid respiratory rate
hypervolemia
excessive blood volume
hypocalcemia
occurs when the calcium level drops below 8.4 mg/dL
hypochloremia
...
hypodermoclysis
slow infusion of isotonic fluid into subcutaneous tissue, may be used for small volumes of fluid
hyponatremia
...
hypophosphatemia
occurs when the level falls b
hypotonic
of less concentration
hypovolemia
too little blood volume (third spacing)
hypoxemia
insufficiency of oxygen, which triggers an automatic increase in respiration
insensible
not aware of
interstitial
fluid in the spaces surrounding the cells
intracellular
fluid within the cell
intravascular
fluid within the blood vessels.
ions
electrically charged particles
isotonic
of equal solute concentration
ketoacidosis
breath of a patient may have a fruity odor owing to the presence of ketone bodies
osmolality
concentration of the solution determined by the number solutes in it
osmosis
refers to the movement of pure solvent (liquid) across a membrane
stridor
shrill, harsh sound upon inspiration
tetany
skeletal muscle spasm where the muscles are in sustained contraction and causing spasm
transcellular
includes aqueous humor, saliva, cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, synovial, and pericardial fluids, gastrointestinal secretions, and fluid in urinary system ad lymphatics
turgor
degree of elasticity
hypokalemia
occurs when the potassium level falls below 3.5 mEq/L
hypomagnesemia
occurs when the serum level drops below 1.3 mEq/L
The nurse assesses that the patient's urine has become much more concentrated, which results from the effect of:
aldosterone
When the water absorption in the renal tubules becomes greater than normal, the nurse anticipates that the urine will become:
more concentrated
The nurse explains that when oxygen is directed out of the arteries and into the capillaries, this process is:
diffusion
The patient's IV has been infusing at a very high rate and now the patient appears to be in fluid volume overload, as indicated by:
pulmonary edema
A small child is hospitalized with severe metabolic acidosis after ingesting a whole bottle of baby aspirin about 8 hours ago. The nursing care for this patient is geared toward reassuring the patient and:
frequent assessment of mental and neurological status
The nurse explains that fluids carrying nutrients and wastes on a random basis throughout the body are carried primarily by:
extracellular fluid.
The nurse clarifies that electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, when dissolved, break down into smaller particles, which are called:
ions
The nurse assists a dyspneic patient to sit in a high Fowler's position. This aids gravity in helping the movement of oxygen from the pulmonary capillaries into the blood by the process of:
diffusion
The nurse evaluates the laboratory reports on electrolyte values carefully to assess the balance between positive and negative ions, which is regulated by the process of:
diffusion
When the nurse hangs an IV bag with Na+, K+, and Cl-, he is aware that ____ are being administered
electrolyes
Each compartment of the body has a water-fluid distribution movement of its own. These fluids move and distribute themselves between these compartments via a process known as:
osmosis
The LPN is preparing to add a new IV of D5W with potassium to an existing line. The LPN notices that there is only 25 mL of urine collected over the last hour. The LPN's best intervention is to:
not hang the IV with potassium; inform the RN of urine output.
Both the intracellular and extracellular fluids are made up of many different electrolytes, but the most abundant intracellular positively charged electrolyte is:
potassium
The patient with metabolic acidosis should be closely monitored for the compensatory condition of
respiratory alkalosis
The K+ laboratory report shows a level of 5.2 mEq/L. The nurse will assess the patient closely for:
irregular heartbeat
A patient has renal damage because of diabetes, which puts the patient at risk for
hyperkalemia
Hyperchloremia, as noted on a laboratory report, is usually associated with
metabolic acidosis
Older adults are at risk for dehydration because of reduced thirst and aging kidneys. The nurse monitors for the early indicator of dehydration, which is:
constipation
The nurse has two newly admitted patients with dehydration. One patient is dehydrated from heat exhaustion and the other from an overdose of Lasix. The finding that will present in both patients is:
increased laboratory values of hemoglobin and hematocrit
The nurse clarifies that fluid balance is mainly monitored in the body by two systems, which are the
circulatory and renal
The nurse is aware that extracellular fluid osmolarity is primarily maintained by
sodium
The nurse instructs that the healthy kidney adjusts the volume and composition of the filtrate that prevents excessive fluid loss by:
tubular reabsorption
The nurse instructs a family that the blood being brought by the incoming capillaries into the kidney, which contains nitrogenous substances to be excreted as waste, involves a process of:
filtration
Because the patient is hypovolemic, the nurse anticipates that treatment will be focused on
extracellular fluid deficit, encourage fluid intake
The patient is frequently thirsty. The nurse assesses this symptom as
too much sodium and too little water in the body
The nurse assesses that the patient with congestive heart failure who is being treated with a diuretic has lost 5 pounds in 1 day. This weight loss is equivalent to the loss of ____________________ liters of fluid.
2.2 Liters
The nurse assesses deep rapid respirations in a patient with metabolic acidosis to be an indicator of the homeostatic system at work to reduce the ____________________ level.
CO2
The nurse would anticipate in a patient with respiratory acidosis that the blood pH reading would be lower than ____________________.
7.35
The nurse cautions a group of high school athletes about fluid loss in hot, dry weather, because the normal loss from respiration, which is ____________________ to ____________________ mL/day, is doubled.
300, 400