8.06: Globalization

Terms in this set (35)

The Kyoto Protocol (KP) was a binding agreement between 37 industrialized nations to reduce and stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The KP is an extension of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which proposed the agreement in response to global warming. The delegates adopted the KP in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997. It took effect on February 16, 2005. By September of 2011, 191 nations had adopted the KP. The target goals of the KP were to reduce greenhouse gas emissions an average of 5.2 percent between 2008 and 2012. The burden was placed on developed nations rather than developing nations. To reach these target goals, each nation was required to measure and record their actual emissions.

No country that signed the Kyoto Protocol met its target goals. Many of the countries that signed the protocol actually increased their productions of greenhouse gasses, sometimes by a large margin. Greece, for instance, increased their emissions by 25 percent during this time period; Spain increased theirs by 15 percent. In addition, missing from the ratified agreement was the United States. Under President Clinton and with the active participation of Vice President Al Gore, the United States initially agreed to the KP on December 11, 1998. However, President Bush declined to ratify it. He cited high costs, lack of scientific evidence for global warming, and the unfairness that "big polluters," like China and India (categorized as developing nations), were not required to cut emissions. Since the United States accounted for 36 percent of the world's emissions in 1990, their exclusion from the agreement created a huge blow to its goals.
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