'Western Civilization II CLEP Test - All Subjects"
All Subjects and Sections on the CLEP Test.
Terms in this set (185)
Thirty Year's War
a religious war between the Catholics and Protestants, which resulted in the political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states - the Dutch Republic, the Swiss Confederacy, the Austro-Hungarian Empire; granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government. Ended with the TREATY OF WESTPHALIA.
First ruled by the Great Elector, Frederick William. Formed after Thirty Year's War. Prussia's nobles, JUNKERS, were given exemption from taxes to give loyalty to the Fredericks. Built an enormous army. Would become Germany.
Large Empire ruled by Habsburgs. Created after Thirty Year's War. Unstable due to ethnic, linguistic, cultural and political differences in it's people. Sided with Germany during WWI. It split up following the end of the war.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
the process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture.
Tutor of Louis XIV who taught about the DIVINE RIGHT of the monarchy, which helped secure Louis' ideal of absolute monarchy. Conservative. Wrote "Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture."
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY.
The French King who built the palace at Versailles, The longest standing King of France "SUN KING",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I AM THE STATE." Executed by furious revolutionaries.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of worship. Revoked by Louis XIV in 1658. He chased the HUGUENOTS out of the country.
Petition of Rights
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent. First Parliamentary limit on the power of a king.
English Civil War
Civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I. Forces of Parliament called "ROUNDHEADS". Forces of the King called "CAVALIERS". Roundheads won, Puritans (Cromwell's religion) purged Presbyterians from Parliament. New RUMP PARLIAMENT destroyed monarchy and executed Charles I
PURITAN Leader of the Roundheads (parliamentarians) in the English Civil War. He was declared "protector" of England, Ireland, and Scotland (like a king). After his death, the monarchy was restored.
The Glorious Revolution
The English Parliament drove out an Catholic absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's WILLIAM III OF ORANGE and MARY, his wife, both Protestants. This Revolution was bloodless, and the new monarch's assented to a BILL OF RIGHTS.
REPUBLICAN form of government. United Provinces of the Netherlands; tolerant of all religions. 1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt. It established the Bank of Amsterdam and became the LEADING FINANCIAL CENTER on the Continent, as well as maritime, trading, and colonization leader.
Peter the Great
Tsar who, in the late 17th and early 18th century, turned to the western model to "modernize" Russia.
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Louis ruined it by his multiple expensive wars and lavish lifestyle.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
The War of Jenkin's Ear
Robert Jenkins, an English Captain, had his ear cut off by Spanish authorities when trying to smuggle goods into Spain. He preserved his ear in a jar of brandy and seven years later in 1738, he appeared before the British Parliament and showed them his ear as an example of Spanish atrocities to British merchants. In late 1739, Great Britain went to war with Spain. Although the war in itself is of little importance, it opened Europe to warfare for the next 80 years, whereas until that point Europe had been relatively peaceful.
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Seven Year's War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land. Known in America as the French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War. Gave Canada and area east of the Mississippi to Britain.
A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832. Fond of kings and against revolution.
British political party. Liberals. Against the king.
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Advanced the treatment and diagnosis of disease. Thought that diseases were caused by chemical imbalances.
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy. He dissected human cadavers. (1514-1564)
First to develop and write a book on the heliocentric theory, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres." It was placed on the index of prohibited books
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a TELESCOPE to study the stars. Advocated heliocentric theory. Was tried by the INQUISITION and spent his life under house arrest.
German Lutheran astronomer, discovered that the paths of the planets around the sun are ELLIPTICAL rather that circular.
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal GRAVITY, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Sir Francis Bacon
Developed the SCIENTIFIC METHOD through the INDUCTIVE method (specific to general), wrote Novum Organum.
17t century French philosopher. Famously known for writing "cogito ergo sum" ("I THINK THEREFORE I AM"). Wrote about concept of dualism.
French mathematician who invented CALCULUS, devised a theory of chance and probability. Wrote the "Pensees." Argued that religion and science are both true. PASCAL's WAGER said that It is worth the risk believing in God.
Developed CALCULUS dependently and at the same time as Pascal.
Wrote "THE SPIRIT OF THE LAWS", advocated separation of powers with the three BRANCHES of legislative, judicial, and executive, plus checks and balances.
French philosopher. Scorned all authority, religion, and corrupt government. Extreme CYNIC. Believed in tolerance, reason, and freedom of thought, expression, and religious belief, but not Christianity. Famous quote, "CRUSH THE INFAMOUS THING!,"the infamous thing being unquestioning religionsand superstitions.
Edited and published the first edition of the ENCYCLOPEDIA. It was a ENLIGHTENED PERSON's BIBLE. He also attacked religion and conservatives.
A highly influential French philosopher who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy. Wrote "SOCIAL CONTRACT," and advocated the general will of the people.
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790). His LAISSEZ-FAIRE economics maintains that governments should let the economy run on it's own and natural laws will keep it afloat. This is capitalism.
THE ATHENS OF THE NORTH. The Scottish had their own Enlightenment.
Wrote THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. First ever history book to refer to history in strictly SECULAR terms. No God involved.
Idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the GREATEST NUMBER of people. Associated with JEREMY BENTHAM.
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Emperor of the Austrian Empire who controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom. ENLIGHTENED DESPOT.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and BUREAUCRATIC foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy. ENLIGHTENED DESPOT.
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia. ENLIGHTENED DESPOT who wrote to Voltaire and Diderot and questioned capital punishment and serfdom.
Illiterate Cossack who started a mass REVOLT of serfs and peasants. Eventually captured, tortured, then executed
Invented CROP ROTATION.
The British government took land from owners, FENCED it off, and used it to raise sheep. Benefitted the economy, but hurt small farmers.
Invented the STEAM ENGINE, which led to steam powered cotton mills, and the railroad.
Public Health Act
Passed in 1848, this encouraged local towns to pass SANITATION laws.
Passed in 1832, this controversial law gave the VOTE to middle class men in industrial cities, and gave them the right to be represented in PARLIAMENT. It abolished "rotten boroughs," sparsely populated areas that had representation.
Passed in 1833 by the SADLER COMMITTEE, this helped prevent exploitation of children factory workers.
Petition in 19th century Britain where members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all MEN.
Wrote the pamphlet "What is the THIRD ESTATE" concerning the plight of France's lower class.
Assembly of Notables
Louis XVI called nobles and clergy to ask for money and the wealthy refused. The nobles refused to pay taxes. This group was made up of people selected by the king and was made up primarily of nobles.
OLD ORDER of kings who ruled absolutely.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Austrian and Prussian emperor declared that they would declare war on France if the ROYAL FAMILY was harmed.
Were forced by mobs to END the MONARCHY in France.
Georges Jacques Danton
JACOBIN French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794).
Jean Paul Marat
One of the prominent JACOBIN radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
Led by Danton, a temporary government set up by SANS-CULOTTES that began executing anti-revolutionaries.
Very RADICAL French revolutionary party responsible for Reign of Terror and execution of king
The CONSERVATIVE side of the National Assembly. They favored having a king and wanted an absolute monarchy like England. They were the first people to control the National Assembly.
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795. REIGN OF TERROR.
New "SECULAR" name for a month in summer.
The violent backlash in France against the rule of Robspierre that began with his arrest and execution in July 1794, or 9 Thermidor in the French revolutionary calendar. Most of the instruments of Terror were dismantled, Jacobins were purged from public office, and Jacobin supporters were harassed or even murdered.
Legislative body of 5 men after Thermidorian Reaction, UNSTABLE.
French general who became EMPEROR of the French (1769-1821) Subtly became sole ruler of a country trying to become democratic. Claimed the title of FIRST CONSUL. Napoleon waged economic and literal war on England constantly. KING OF ITALY too.
Treaty of Tilsit
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Napoleon waged economic war on Britain by preventing trade with it and providing for trade with France.
Where Napoleon eventually met his defeat. He then was exiled to Elba.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting among world powers concerning how the world would run after Napoleon. They wanted no country to control another, creating buffer states, Belgium, from France's conquered territory. PEACEKEEPERS.
RUSSIA, PRUSSIA, AUSTRIA, AND BRITAIN banded together to defeat the tyrant Napoleon.
Concert of Europe
The Quadruple Alliance, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain...plus France, to prevent France's resentment towards the victors.
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires over Christian shrines and territory fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
Father of modern CONSERVATISM. noted for his emphasis on tradition. Wrote "Reflections on the Revolution in France."
John Stuart Mill
LIBERAL who wrote the popular work "ON LIBERTY"
Idea created by JOHANN GOTTFRIED HERGER about a "PEOPLE'S SPIRIT" to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries. NATIONALISM.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Conservative king who was revolted against in SPAIN. He ignored Spain's constitution and disbanded the parliament.
Three nations, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, who were nervous about liberal revolts, established the PROTOCOL OF TROPPAU that states they can intervene in the affairs of other countries unable to remain CONSERVATIVE.
The GREEKS revolted against the OTTOMANS for their independence.The Concert of Europe generally opposed to this.
Weakness of instability of OTTOMAN rule in the Mediterranean region.
Treaty of London
Declared GREECE independent and mandated a monarchy there.
French liberals who wanted the absolute monarchy; supported Charles X, wanted the ANCIEN REGIME
CONSERVATIVE KING succeeded his brother Louis XVIII. His desire to restore France to a Pre-1789 world led to the Revolution of 1830 and the ascent of Louis Philippe.
Louis Philippe I
After Charles X is abdicated, this LIBERAL KING is given the throne of France. He is called the "King of the French," which meant that he worked for the people. NATIONAL GUARD killed forty rioters.
French Revolution of 1848
Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under NAPOLEON III in 1850.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
ELECTED president of France following general election. Won 70% of the votes because of his name. Bonaparte later changed the government to an empire w/himself as emperor just like his uncle, the original Napoleon. Took the title of EMPEROR NAPOLEON III
A war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany; 1870-1871Declared by OTTO VON BISMARK. Humiliating for the French.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the FRANCO-PRUSSIAN War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872) YOUNG ITALY, and RISORGIMENTO movements.
King of PIEDMONT-SARDINIA, part of Italy.
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy.
Piedmont, Italy defeated Austro-Hungarian empire and won their INDEPENDENCE.
(1807-1882) Soldier of fortune who amassed his "RED SHIRT" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy.
Kaiser Wilhelm I
The King of Prussia who chose Otto Van Bismark to be his Prime Minister. He was eventually crowned Kaiser of Prussia and Germany.
Seven Weeks' War
aka AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN War (1866) This war resulted from Bismarck wanting to isolate Austria from German affairs
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Major step towards German unification.
Daimler and Benz
Perfected the INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, for cars.
William and Catherine Booth
Founded the Salvation Army
Monopolized more than 75% of U.S. oil.
The most important commodity of the SECOND Industrial Revolution. Used for building ships, trains, bridges, and weapons of war.
In 1884, this British prime minister passed the REFORM ACT, which gave the vote to 60 percent of British men.
Isolated the TUBERCULOSIS bacillus.
Discovered in 1895 and led to questions about the nature of matter.
Influential to Darwin's theory, he thought that everything, including humans, produce MORE OFFSPRING than can survive due to food shortages.
GOD IS DEAD. Hated self sacrifice, emphasized a "will to power." A minority of the strongest should rule.
formulated SOCIAL DARWINISM.
Promoted a GOSPEL of WEALTH, creating a heaven on earth by helping the poor to help themselves.
Founded the famous British RHODES SCHOLARS program for study in Oxford, England. He wanted students from colonies to study in England, then return and help the empire. RHODESIA (Zimbabwe) named after him.
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the CUBANS' fight for INDEPENDENCE.
Divided AFRICA among the Europeans and contributed greatly to the SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA.
Warship that was sent to the MOROCCAN coast by the GERMANS, to publicly declare they favored Moroccans being free from their colonizers, France. It was a threat to Britain and France.
Germany supported this country in keeping control of it's Slavic nationalistics, which put GERMANY at odds with RUSSIA, because they wanted Slavs free.
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary before WWI
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
AUSTRIA and HUNGARY. Ruled by Francis Joseph of the Hapsburg empire from 1848 to 1916.
Britain political party devoted to the interests of the LABOR UNION movement.
An association of British socialists who advocate gradual evolutionary reforms within the law leading to democratic SOCIALISM.
People, such as EDUARD BERNSTEIN, who believed that COMMUNISM could be achieved slowly and through democratic means.
First and Second International
Organizations devoted to revolution. Created by radical COMMUNISTS and SOCIALISTS, including Marx.
Social Democratic Party
SOCIALISTIC political party in Germany. SDP
Finance minister who INDUSTRIALIZED Russia.
Important Russian radical who was a member of secret, exiled, SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARY AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTIES in Russia, which was ruled by a tsar.
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, DUTCH colonists and the BRITISH competed for control of territory in South Africa.
Austrian archduke who was assasinated by SERBIAN NATIONALISTS as the trigger of the FIRST WORLD WAR in 1914.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire ALLIED during WWI
Russia, France, and Britain during WWI.
Battle of the Somme
Disastrous battle during which the British suffered 60,000 casualties and had nothing to show for it.
Dulce et Decorum Est
Powerful poem by WILFRED OWEN about the horrors of WWI.
Ship sunk by GERMAN UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE on all ships headed for Britain. This caused Americans to enter the war.
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Radical SUFFRAGETTE who led the WOMEN'S SOCIAL AND POLITICAL UNION, which led large, noisy, and sometimes violent demonstrations.
a military draft
Greater freedom for Ireland.
Civil conflict caused by Irish nationalists in the IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY against the British Empire, led by EAMON de VALERA.
Austro-Hungarian empire dissolved
From it emerged Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Austria.
Ottoman empire dissolved
From it emerged Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Iraq.
Peace treaty between Russia and Central Powers. Marked Russia's exit from war. Its harsh terms intensified the Allies' determination for victory.
First loss of a European power to an ASIAN COUNTRY.
Thousands of Russians marched on the Winter Palace. Nicholas II gave up power. A PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT was set up, and immediately social reforms took place.
Local communist councils established throughout Russia.
Lenin and Trotsky
overthrew the provisional government in Russia in 1917, made null the democratic reforms, and established a dictatorship.
Also called the COMINTERN. This institute provided rules for Socialists throughtout Europe to follow. Among it's TWENTYONE CONDITIONS was the rejection of all political forms that called for the institution of communism through gradual means.
forefront, cutting edge, trailblazers of the revolution.
Revolution from Above
euphemism used to justify DICTATORSHIP in the name of freedom.
BOLSHEVIKS. Revolutionaries and communists.
LIBERALS and Monarchists. All those opposed to the Russian Revolution.
New Economic Policy
Lenin was forced to institute this policy, which allowed PEASANTS to SELL some of what they produced.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition. INDUSTRIALIZED RUSSIA using FIVE YEAR PLANS which developed economics and emphasizes steel, iron, electricity, and heavy tools. Work for him was done by POLITICAL PRISONERS.
Mutiny of Russia's fleet took place here.
Farmers who resisted COLLECTIVIZATION and were labeled enemies of Stalin. All were executed.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
treaty of non-aggression between Russian and Germany during WW2 to keep it a one front war for Germany. Also called the NAZI-SOVIET PACT.
NATIONAL SOCIALIST party in GERMANY.
Fascist dictator of ITALY (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.Called IL DUCE (the leader)
Italian POLITICAL party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy. Didn't believe in democracy.
Black Shirt March
Mussolini's rise to power. Thousands of followers marched on Rome. King Victor Emmanuel III made Mussolini prime minister. Then Fascists made all other political parties illegal.
Made by Mussolini with the CATHOLIC CHURCH. Declared catholicism Italy's official religion, made church lands tax exempt, and gave church ability to oversee rules regarding marriage. The church then RECOGNIZED MUSSOLINI's status as ruler of Italy.
Battle of Adowa
ETHIOPIA beat off Italy's invasion of their country in this battle. Italy was the only European nation to have been defeated by Africans in war.
A Jewish British prime minister.
fire at the Reichstag
Hitler blamed this event on communists and gave himself an excuse to take COMPLETE POWER of Germany.
government set up in Sourthern France by the Nazis.
Anti-Nazi, Anti-Vichy Regime French fighters who were led by CHARLES de GAULLE.
The machine German's encrypted their battle plan codes on, which British broke and could foresee German battle plans.
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Britain and America
Battle of the Bulge
Last German offensive on the Western Front in World War II. Its failure hastened German defeat.
A city Hitler wanted because it was a center of rail transportation and provide access to oil fields.
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender
Extermination of the Jews.
Head of the SS, in charge of extermination.
Nazi war criminal who lived in hiding in Argentina for years before her was captured. HANNAH ARENDT argued in her book, "Eichmann in Jerusalem" that he seemed hardly demonic.
Document that helped create the UNITED NATIONS.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Soviet counterpart to NATO
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952). Implemented by the ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION
John F. Kennedy
US president who gave a deadline to the Soviet Union to stop building missiles on Cuba.
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need to PROTECT COMMUNISM.
The Soviets invade Afghanistan, many people support Afghanistan through the context of the Cold War and to prevent the spread of Communism.