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substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introdeced into a body to produce immiunity
the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another; first observed by Griffith
subunit of nucleic acids; consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
the rule stating that in DNA adenine on the strand always pairs with thymine on the opposite strand and guanine on one strand always pairs with a cytosine on the opposite strand
characterisic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
a Y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA separates so that it can be copied
stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule
a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA or mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a stop signal
RNA moleule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
segment of DNA that controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryoyes
gene system with a promoter; an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
segment of mRNA transcribed from eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
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