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Developmental Psych Chapter 12
Terms in this set (11)
Identity vs. Role Diffusion
Erikson's fifth stage of the lifespan. Identity v. Identity/role diffusion, in this stage teens must re-evaluate themselves. At this point identity means teenagers are asking themselves, "Who am I?" What is their sense of purpose, what do they believe in, what is important to them? They consider their abilities, interests, and values and search for goals, purpose, and direction in life (career, politics, religion, gender roles). Identity diffusion is being confused about who you are, not yet having a sense of value, and having no clear values or direction. Identity diffusion is associated with low self-esteem and conformity. How an adolescent handles this crisis in very important for handling the next crisis, and people who experience difficulty with who they are will likely have difficulty with their next crisis.
James Marcia expanded on Erikson's theme of identity. He did a study of 18-22 year olds and asked about their religious, political, and career values/beliefs/thoughts. He identified four statuses of identity and they reflect two main issues. The first is crisis/exploration; active search for identity; have they seriously questioned their core beliefs and values, have they considered other options, have they thought about different career opportunities. The second is commitment; have identity issues been resolved? Have they committed to their views?
Fourth Status: Identity Achievement: They have experienced questioning process/crisis, and as a result made a commitment. Both issues are yes. Ex: "After careful thought I have decided to be a nurse."
Third Status: Moratorium: A person is in the middle (actively) experiencing an identity crisis. They are trying to figure out what they want to do/major in, but they haven't made a commitment/resolved the crisis yet. Ex: "I've been looking at architecture and engineering, but I just can't decide yet."
Second Status: Identity Foreclosure: First issue is no, second is yes. Has not actively pursued identity issues, but has made a commitment. Ex: "Mom and Dad expect me to be a farmer, so that's what I plan to be."
First Status: Identity Diffusion: Answer to both issues is no. Individual has not thought about identity issues and has made no commitment. More typical of young teenagers.
Final Stage: Genital Stage; Return of sexual feelings, which are directed towards peers, not parents. Teenagers have a more mature sexuality.
How did Freud describe personality development during the genital stage?
5th stage: Identity vs. Identity Diffusion; teens must re-evaluate themselves. At this point identity means teenagers are asking themselves, "Who am I?" What is their sense of purpose, what do they believe in, what is important to them? They consider their abilities, interests, and values. Search for goals, purpose, and direction in life (career, politics, religion, gender roles). Identity Diffusion: Being confused about who you are, not yet having a sense of value. No clear values or direction. Low self-esteem, conformity. Very important for handling the next life crisis. People who experience difficulty with who they are will likely have difficulty with the next crisis.
Discuss the role of identity in personality development during adolescence, according to Erikson.
Marcia proposed four identity statuses that represented the four possible combinations of the dimensions of exploration and commitment that Erikson believed were critical to the development of identity. These four stages are identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and identity achievement.
How has Marcia expanded on Erikson's concept of identity in adolescence?
Ethnicity, gender, self-esteem, relationships with family and peers, and sexuality.
Identify factors that influence the successful achievement of identity during adolescence.
Peers are a source of activities, influence and support. Peer pressure peaks in mid-adolescence. Peers provide a standard by which adolescents measure their own behavior. Peer pressure to finish high school is positive, but peer pressure to do drugs is negative.
Discuss the influence that peers have on adolescents.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Developmental Psych Chapters 13 & 14
Developmental Psych Chapters 15 & 16
Developmental Psych Chapters 17 & 18
Adult Development Exam 2 (Homan)
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