89 terms

Vascular System

communication of blood vessel with another blood vessel by a connecting channel
smaller artery that branches off an artery and connects with a capillary
narrowing and blockage of arteries by a buildup of plaque
type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
bacteria traveling within the vascular system
smaller blood vessel that branches off an arteriole to supply blood directly to tissue
foreign material or thrombus traveling in the blood that can block the vessel
bruise that results when a blood vessel is injured and a small amount of blood escapes into the surrounding tissue and clots
large amounts of blood that escape into the surrounding tissue with out clotting when a blood vessel is seriously injured
substance which consists of cholesterol (mainly), calcium, clotting proteins, and other substances that can be found lining arteries
network of blood vessels, usually veins
clot that forms on inner blood vessel wall
type of blood vessel that travels to the heart, carrying blood
Venous Sinus
blood filled space between two layers of tissue
smaller vein that drains that capillaries of the tissue area and then joins larger veins
Blood supply to the brain comes from
internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (arteries located near spine)
Left side of body blood supply comes from
common carotid artery and subclavian artery which arise directly from aorta
Right side of body blood supply comes from
common carotid artery and subclavian artery which are both branches from the brachiocephalic of aorta
Carotid sinus
swelling just below the common carotid artery. bifurcates into the internal and external common carotid
arises lateral to the common carotid
Internal carotid
source for opthalmic artery, supplies eye, orbit and lacrimal glands supply intracranial and extracranial structures. a mjor destination is the upper extremities (arm).
External carotid artery has
8 branches, located in 3 areas
Anterior portion of external carotid artery contains
1. superior thyroid artery 2. lingual artery 3. facial artery
Branches of Superior thyroid artery
1. superior laryngeal artery 2. infrahyoid 3. sternocleidomastoid
Superior laryngeal artery
supplies the mucous and muscles of the larynx
supplies the infrahyoid muscles (sternothryoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid)
supplies the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Branches of Lingual artery
1. sublingual branch 2. dorsal lingual branch 3. deep lingual branch 4. suprahyoid
Sublingual branch
floor of mouth, sublingual salivary glands, mucous membranes, and adjacent muscles. also mylohyoid muscle
Dorsal lingual branch
supplies base and body of tongue, tonsils, soft palate and epiglottis
Deep lingual branch
apex of tongue, along inferior surface of the tongue, sublingual and mylohyoid glands
suprahyoid muscles (geniohyoid, mylohyoid, stylohyoid and digastric)
Branches of Facial artery
1. ascending palatine 2. submental 3. inferior labial 4. superior labial 5. angular artery
Facial artery
below the angle of mandible, curves over border across face where a pule point can be found. terminates at the medial canthus of eye
Ascending palatine
supplies muscular wall of pharynx and deep muscles of vertebral column, soft palate, palatine muscles and tonsils. serious blood loss occurs if injured during tonsillectomy
runs toward chin, supplies submandibular salivary gland and lymph nodes, mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric
Inferior labial
lower lip, depressor anguli oris
Superior labial
upper lip
Angular artery
terminal branch at base of nose and eyes. supplies skin of nose and eyelids
An anastomosis or additional connection occurs between
the angular and opthalmic artery of the internal carotid artery. connects the internal and external common carotid arteries. function is accessory blood supply
Medial portion of external carotid artery contains
1. ascending pharyngeal artery
Ascending pharyngeal artery
supplies pharyngeal walls, soft palate and meninges of brain. has anastomosis with ascending palatine artery
Posterior portion of external carotid artery contains
1. occipital artery (hypoglossal nerve XII) 2. posterior auricular artery 3. superficial temporal artery
Occipital artery
supplies suprahyoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles, scalp, back of head. has anastomosis with vessels of neck to allow for alternative routes if carotid becomes blocked
Posterior auricular artery
supplies parotid and some suprahyoid, stylohyoid above the level and tip of styloid process, supplies the internal ear with its auricular branch and amstoid cells by the sylomastoid artery
Superficial temporal artery
terminal branch, arises within parotid gland, supplies the parotid. pulse on posterior border of zygomatic arch. has branches to serve the external ear, TMJ and scalp above the ear
Branches of superficial temporal artery
1. transverse facial artery 2. middle temporal artery 3. frontal and parietal artery
Transverse facial artery
terminal branch supplies parotid and masseter muscle
Middle temporal artery
supplies the temporalis muscle
Frontal and Parietal artery
supplies scalp in that area
Maxillary artery sits in
the pterygopalatine fossa (cone shaped paired depression deep to the infratemporal fossa, located between the pterygoid process and maxillary tuberosity)
Branches of maxillary artery
1. mandibular 2. pterygoid 3. pterygopalatine
Mandibular artery
behind neck of mandible
Branches of mandibular artery
1. middle meningeal 2. accessory meningeal 3. inferior alveolar artery (dental branches and alveolar branches) 4. mental branch 5. incisive branch (dental and alveolar branches) 6. lingual branch 7. mylohyoid branch
Middle meningeal artery
passes through foramen spinosum, supplies the meninges of brain and bones of skull
Accessory meningeal artery
passes through foramen ovale, supplies trigeminal ganglion
Inferior alveolar artery
runs the mandibular canal, arises at infratemporal fossa
Dental branches of inferior alveolar artery
supply the pulp tissue of mandibular posterior teeth
Alveolar branches of inferior alveolar artery
supply the periodontium of mandibular posterior teeth
Mental branch
at mental foramen, supplies skin of chin and mucous membranes of lower lip. has anastomosis with inferior alveolar artery
Dental branches of incisive
supply the pulp tissue of mandibular anterior teeth
Alveolar branches of incisive
supply the periodontium of mandibular anterior teeth including the gingiva. has anastomosis with alveolar branches of incisive artery
Lingual branch
supplies apex of tongue
Mylohyoid branch
supplies mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric (floor of mouth)
Pterygoid area of maxillary artery
each of branches travel with branch of mandibular nerve of same name
Branches of pterygoid area
1. masseteric 2. deep temporal 3. pterygoid 4. buccal
Masseteric branch
pass through mandibular notch to supply masseter muscle
Deep temporal branch
supply the anterior and posterior portions of the temporalis muscle
Pterygoid branch of pterygoid area
supply the lateral and medial pterygoid muscle
Buccal branch
supply the buccinator muscle and soft tissues of cheek
Pterygopalatine Region of Maxillary artery
supplies the maxilla, maxillary teeth, nasal cavity and palate
Branches of Pterygopalatine region
1. posterior superior alveolar 2. infraorbital 3. grater palatine 4. lesser palatine 5. sphenopalatine
Posterior superior alveolar
descends over the maxillary tuberosity, runs through the posterior superior alveolar foramen. supplies maxillary molars. has anastomosis with anterior superior alveolar
passes thru infraorbital canal and crosses floor of orbit. runs through pterygopalatine fossa
Branches of Infraorbital
1. palpebral 2. labial 3. external 4. middle superior alveolar 5. anterior superior alveolar
Palpebral branch
supplies the lower eyelids and lacrimal sac
Labial branch
supplies the cheeks and upper lip
External nasal branch
supplies sides of nose
Middle superior alveolar
given off in the infraorbital canal, supplies premolars
Anterior superior alveolar
supplies maxillary anterior teeth. Dental branches supplies pulp of max ant teeth. Alveolar brances supply periodontium of max ant teeth
Greater palatine
exits through greater palatine foramen. supplies palatine glands and hard palate
Lesser palatine branch
runs through lesser palatine foramen. supplies soft palate and paltine tonsils
Sphenopalatine branch
supplies the nasal cavity. runs through pterygopalatine fossa
Branches of sphenopalatine
1. posterior lateral nasal branch 2. septal branch 3. nasopalatine branch
Posterior lateral nasal branch
supplies lateral nasal walls and sinuses
Septal branch
supplies the nasal septum
Nasopalatine branch
accompanies the nasopalatine nerve through the incisive foramen on the maxilla
Pterygoid plexus of veins
small anastomoses vessels located around the pterygoid muscles surrounding maxillary artery. protects the maxillary artery from being compressed during mastication
Circle of Willes
ring shaped anastomoses interconnecting the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries. chance of serious interruption of circulation are reduced. strokes occur here. located in anterior portion of head, near soft spot