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AP World History: Chapters 29 & 30
Terms in this set (88)
During the 1930s, the combination of the Great Depression and the memory of tragic losses in World War I contributed to pushing American public opinion and policy toward isolationism. Isolationists advocated non-involvement in European and Asian conflicts and non-entanglement in international politics.
Italian fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Political policy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920's and 1930's; attacked weaknesses of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Pancho Villa was a top military leader of the Mexican Revolution. After a coup by Victoriano Huerta, Villa formed his own army to oppose the dictator, with more battles to follow as Mexican leadership remained in a state of flux. He was assassinated on July 20, 1923, in Parral, Mexico.
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform.
Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Party of the Industrialized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920's and 1930's; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico.
Kerensky & provisional gov
Alexander Kerensky was a liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution on 1917; sought development of a parliamentary rile, religious freedom.
political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union
Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution
Vladimir Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist.
"Russian Revolution" is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
War communism or military communism was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921.
Red Army & Leon Trotsky
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky , Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved in 1991.
International office of Communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalism view of communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five year plans to replace NEP; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through WW2, furthered Cold War with western Europe and the United States
creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants, though often lowered food production; part of Stalin's political and economic planning; often adopted in other communist regimes.
a category of affluent landlords in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union.
Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
May Fourth Movement
an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
a Chinese Communist revolutionary, and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His Marxist-Leninist theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Marxism-Leninism-Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought.
Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.
The Long March
An important event in the history of the Chinese communists. Driven from southern and eastern China by Chiang Kai-shek at the end of the 1920s, the communist leader Mao Zedong led his forces on a long march to safety in the northwest part of China.
The Great Depression was an economic slump in North America, Europe, and other industrialized areas of the world that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world.
an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term (1933-1937) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
f or relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
National Socialism is the product of over a century of political and social thought cultivated in Germanic nations, popularized and first put into action by its foremost proponent, German Führer (Leader) and Chancellor Adolf Hitler.
he Secret State Police was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
Spanish Civil War/Franco
A war fought in the late 1930s in Spain. On one side were the Loyalists, Spaniards loyal to a recently elected government in the form of a republic; on the other side were fascists (see fascism), led by General Francisco Franco.
Guernica & Picasso
Probably Picasso's most famous work, Guernica is certainly the his most powerful political statement, painted as an immediate reaction to the Nazi's devastating casual bombing practice on the Basque town of Guernica during Spanish Civil War.
the sociopolitical organization of a society by major interest groups, or corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of common interests.
Cardenas & Mexico
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río was a general in the Mexican Revolution and an able statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
Vargas & Brazil
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas was President of Brazil, first as dictator, from 1930 to 1945, and in a democratically elected term from 1951 until his suicide in 1954.
Juan & Evita Peron
Juan was the founder of adherent of Peronism, which had populist and nationalistic policies that Perón espoused. Peronism has played an important part in Argentina's history since the mid-1940s. Evita was his wife and the first lady.
Populism is a political outlook or disposition that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears) of the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective consciousness to push against the prevailing status quo interests of any predominant political sector.
five year plans
created by Stalin, a government plan for economic development over five years. The first such plan in the Soviet Union was inaugurated in 1928.
the theory of art, literature, and music officially sanctioned by the state in some communist countries (especially in the Soviet Union under Stalin), by which artistic work was supposed to reflect and promote the ideals of a socialist society.
he executive committee for a number of (usually communist) political parties.
"cleansing of the party ranks" were a key ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of the "undesirables."
Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.
Weimar Republic is an unofficial designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place.
a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place.
"Aryan master race"
The Aryan race was a racial grouping commonly used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid-20th century to describe peoples of European and Western Asian heritage
Axis v. Allies
the Axiswere the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.
the Allies were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939-1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression.
An English political leader and author of the twentieth century; he became prime minister shortly after World War II began and served through the end of the war in Europe. Churchill symbolized the fierce determination of the British to resist conquest by the Germans under Adolf Hitler.
to bring to a state of peace, quiet, ease, calm, or contentment; pacify; soothe
a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded.
"rape of Nanjing"
mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. The number of Chinese killed in the massacre has been subject to much debate, with most estimates ranging from 100,000 to more than 300,000.
was the Nazi propaganda term for the annexing of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938.
Sudetenland & Munich Conference
settlement reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia. After his success in absorbing Austria into Germany proper in March 1938, Adolf Hitler looked covetously at Czechoslovakia, where about three million people in the Sudeten area were of German origin. It became known in May 1938 that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks were relying on military assistance from France, with which they had an alliance. The Soviet Union also had a treaty with Czechoslovakia, and it indicated willingness to cooperate with France and Great Britain if they decided to come to Czechoslovakia's defense, but the Soviet Union and its potential services were ignored throughout the crisis.
On August 23, 1939-shortly before World War II (1939-45) broke out in Europe-enemies Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years.
A German term for "lightning war," blitzkrieg is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery.
Vichy France & occupied France
Vichy France, formally French State, French État Français, (July 1940-September 1944), France under the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain from the Nazi German defeat of France to the Allied liberation in World War II.
Occupied France is where the German forces occupied France
Battle of Britian
The Battle of Britain is the name given to the Second World War defence of the United Kingdom by the Royal Air Force against an onslaught by the German Air Force which began at the end of June 1940.
Turning Points in Battles
EL Alamein: With the Allies victorious, it marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
Stalingrad: Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining elements of the 6th Army surrendered, keeping then out of the SU
Coral Sea: The battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.
D-Day & Normaday
On June 6, 1944, more than 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline, to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. More than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded, but their sacrifice allowed more than 100,000 Soldiers to begin the slow, hard slog across Europe, to defeat Adolf Hitler's crack troops.
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
-A massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich on the night of November 9, 1938, into the next day, has come to be known as Kristallnacht or The Night of Broken Glass.
-the Nazi policy of exterminating European Jews. Introduced by Heinrich Himmler and administered by Adolf Eichmann, the policy resulted in the murder of 6 million Jews in concentration camps between 1941 and 1945.
-a Jewish sacrificial offering that is burned completely on an altar.
he first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps
Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka
concentartion camps in Poland
travel from one island to another, especially as a tourist in an area of small islands.
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
cites where US air forces bombed Japan in attempts to get the Japanese to surrender in World War 2
an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries. The organization works on economic and social development programs, improving human rights and reducing global conflicts.
The Security Council is the United Nations' most powerful body, with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security." Five powerful countries sit as "permanent members" along with ten elected members with two-year terms.
Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, seat of the ICJ. The International Court of Justice (French: Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations (UN).
a right that is believed to belong justifiably to every person.
Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam
Germany's invasion of Russia in 1941 forced Stalin to seek military help. As we have seen, despite the very different political systems in Russia, the United States and Great Britain, the threat of a common enemy brought the Allies together. The leaders of the three powers (or their representatives) met relatively frequently, declaring their shared beliefs as a way of maintaining morale at home. In 1942 the Atlantic Charter gave support for the principle of national self-determination. The next year at the Casablanca Conference America reassured Russia that there would not be a compromise peace with Germany, but it remained to be seen how much these 'promises' made in the midst of a desperate military situation could be carried out at the end of the war.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
Quit India Movement
On 8 August 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the 'Quit India' movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.
Muslim League, political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's creation on 14 August 1947, and then as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death.
Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
Kwame Nkrumah & Ghana
In the period of African colonial independence the beacon country from Africa was Ghana, first to achieve independence in 1957. The new nation's most influential figure was its prime minister, later president, Kwame Nkrumah.
Jomo Kenyatta & the KAU
The Kenya African Union was founded in 1942 under the name Kenya African Study Union. The word "study" was dropped in 1947 when Jomo Kenyatta joined and became leader of the party. At the time Kenya was among several African colonies experiencing misrule as a result of the European power's distracting involvement in World War II. Kenyan Africans tried to use KAU to gain political rights through peaceful, nonviolent approaches. The Kenya African Union formed to demand independence for Kenya in the early 1950s through a more forceful approach. Many protests and riots led to the organisation being proscribed in 1952, and several of its leaders being detained.
Land Freedom Party
a Russian clandestine revolutionary organization of Narodniki (middle- or upper-class revolutionaries attempting to spread socialism in rural areas) in the 1870s. In Russian, it is Земля и воля, transliterated Zemlya i volya or Zemlia i volia, and translated usually as Land and Liberty or Land and Freedom.
FLN & Algeria
Founded in 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) succeeded Messali Hadj's Algerian People's Party (PPA), while its leaders created an armed wing, the Armée de Libération Nationale (National Liberation Army) to engage in an armed struggle against French authority.
any of the descendants of the pre-Arab inhabitants of North Africa. The Berbers live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauretania.
The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, introduced on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the French Fourth Republic, replacing the prior parliamentary government with a semi-presidential system.
Afrikaners & the National Party
South African political party, founded in 1914, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994. Its following included most of the Dutch-descended Afrikaners and many English-speaking whites. The National Party was long dedicated to policies of apartheid and white supremacy, but by the early 1990s it had moved toward sharing power with South Africa's black majority.
a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994.
The Haganah self-defense system is a complete Israeli Combative methodology based on both Israeli martial arts and Israeli military tactics used by Israeli Special Forces operatives in extremely hostile situations.
UN Partition Plan 1948
a proposal developed by the United Nations, which recommended a partition with Economic Union of Mandatory Palestine to follow the termination of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan as Resolution 181
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