74 terms

Exam 3 Terms

Senator Gerald Nye
-senator from North Dakota
-held hearings (Nye Committee) about how the US got involved in WWI
-Led investigation from 1934-37 that found bankers and munitions makers made scandalous profits during WWI
-founded the Nye Committee
America First Society
-supported isolationism during WWII
-established by Gerald Nye
-one of the largest anti war groups
-shut down after the Pearl Harbor attack
Benito Mussolini
-Fascist dictator of Italy
-He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia
joined Germany in the Axis pact
-allied Italy with Germany in World War II
-overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy
Beer Hall Putsch
-In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich
-It was a total failure
-Hitler received a brief prison sentence
-wrote Mien Kampf while in prison
Mien Kampf
-(My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler
-combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology of Nazism
-Written while he was in prison for his role in the Beer hall Putsch
Hitler's Propaganda
-maximize emotional fervor
-use emotionally enthralling and attractive slogans
-speeches should focus on how they are presented, not what they say
Joseph Goebbles
-Minister of Propaganda
-He lied in everything and admires himself for it
-glorified Hitler
-one of the closest to Hitler
Winston Churchill
-British Prime Minister during WWII
-predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West
-great leader
-Night of Broken Glass
-Nov 9 1938
-night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews
-destroyed many jewish properties
Nuremberg Law
-Placed severe restrictions of Jews
-established a real legal basis in Germany against Jews
-prohibited from marrying non-Jews attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books
-took away their citizenship
Douglas MacArthur
-American general
-commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II
-removed from command during Korean War by Truman
Bataan Death March
-April 1942 in the Philippines
-American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors
-many of the prisoners died en route
Joseph Stalin
-Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party
-created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
-launched a highly centralized command economy
-transformed Soviet Union into a industrial power
-City in Russia
-site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943
-The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union
-claimed the most lives than any other conflict during the war
Pearl Harbor
-December 7, 1941
-Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
-They were well prepared for the attack, but US did not expect it at all
-US officially entered WWII after this
Operation Overlord
-the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe
-at Normandy on June 6, 1944
-also known as D-Day
-led by Eisenhower
-said by General McAuliffe
-morale booster to the troops
-reply to the Nazis request to surrender
Battle of the Bulge
-World War II battle in December 1944
-between Germany and Allied troops
-last German offensive in the West
-Germans suffered heavy losses
-City in Japan
-the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945
-The bombing hastened the end of World War II
Iron Curtain Speech
-March 1946
-Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri
-said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent
-talks about dangers of communism engulfing Europe
Greece and Turkey
-Two countries that were saved from communist takeover through U.S. intervention
-US provided economic assistance to them
-part of the Truman Doctrine
George Kennan
-American diplomat and ambassador
-best known as "the father of containment"
-key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
Containment Policy
-Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII
-said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism)
-Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
The Marshall Plan
-After WWII, this document was created
-said that the US would provide food and economic assistance to any European country that needed helpto recover from WWII
-Truman offered it to the Soviet Union but Stalin didn't accept it
-It greatly improved many western European countries
Vyacheslav Molotov
-a Soviet politician and diplomat
-leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin
-Created Molotov Plan (aid to Eastern European countries)
Berlin Airlift
-Airports had been cut in half
-Runways were too short for American planes
-Able to bring in enough supplies
-Very successful
-Stalin finally opened up the Autobahn
Executive Or. 9835
-introduced by Truman
-established the first general loyalty program in the United States
-designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government
-hoped to quiet right-wing critics who accused Democrats of being soft on communism
Martin Dyes Jr.
-Texas politician and part of the House of Representatives
-head of the HUAC
-investigated communism in government
Alger Hiss
-Well known in Democratic circles
-Thought to be a spy
-Convicted for perjury
-made people fear communism was spreading
-a congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII
-created by McCarthy
-part of the Red Scare
-The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy
-led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s
-through his leadership in the House Committee on Un-American Activities
-the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
-during the Cold War
-term used by John Foster Dulles
-wanted to force Soviets to back down
John Foster Dulles
-Eisenhower's Sec. of State
-harsh anti-Communist
-called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)
-wanted to provide aid to American allies
-introduced brinkmanship
Mohammed Mosadegh
-Prime Minister of Iran
-His administration introduced a wide range of social and political reforms
-nationalization of the Iranian oil industry
-removed from power in a coup
-organised and carried out by the United States CIA
Covert Operations
-Eisenhower used covert operations with the CIA
-operatives were assigned to spread propaganda
-Eisenhower began to favor using the cia instead of the military because covert operations didn't attract as much attention
-removed Iranian Prime Minister from power
Bay of Pigs
-Invasion of Cuba
-Humiliating defeat for US
-Embarrassing for JFK and US in general
-Unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Castro
-JFK came out on national TV and took blame for entire event
Went up in polls afterwards
Domino Theory
-the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control
-great fear as it was possible this could happen
-theory of Eisenhower
Cuban Missile Crisis
-Most dangerous of all of the Cold War
-Closest to WWIII than any other event
-Soviets tried to establish a nuclear missile base in Cuba
-Could wipe out cities in a matter of seconds
Robert Kennedy
-brother of JFK
-He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals
-He was ultimately assassinated in 1968
-left Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans
Dien Bien Phu
-City in north Vietnam
-Major battle in 1954
-French march right into the valley
-Only one way in/out
-Vietnamese men take high ground and bombard the French
Ngo Dinh Diem
-Appointed him as the new president of South Vietnam
-He was a Roman Catholic in a Buddhist country
-poor leadership and very corrupt
LBJ's Vietnam Policy (1965-1968)
-wants to increase American involvement in Vietnam
-doesn't want to do it without Congressional authority
-navy apparently attacked in Tonkin
-LBJ goes to congress to ask for broad executive powers to wage war
Nikita Khrushchev
-Stalin's successor in Russia
-wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S.
-created the Cuban Missile Crisis
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
-Gave complete power for war to the President (LBJ)
-No oversight
-Could do whatever he wanted with Vietnam
-can take all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack
Tet Offensive
-Tet was the Vietnamese New Year
-Total military intelligence failure
-Attacked every major city
-Were in civilian clothes
-American people begin to turn against the war
Robert McNamara
-US Secretary of Defense
-Recommended an immediate attack on Cuba
-Wanted to eliminate Cuba completely
-Better to be safe than sorry
Walter Cronkite
-The most trusted man in America
-He was a news anchor
-Supported the war until Tet Offensive
-Peace talks begin after this
Jim Crow Laws
-The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern states
-aimed to limit rights of blacks
-included Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
W.E.B. Dubois
-He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately
-helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights
-He also helped found the NAACP
-first black man to receive a Ph.D from Harvard
Desegregation of College Law Schools
Sweat v Painter
-a black man applied to UTEXAS law school
-his application was immediately rejected because only whites were accepted
-created a separate law school that was supposed to be equal but really wasn't
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education
-the Supreme Court reversed the 1896 "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision that established the "separate but equal" doctrine
-The "Brown" decision found segregation in schools inherently unequal and in violation of the Constitution
-led to a long and difficult effort to integrate the nation's public schools
-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
-founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination
-to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans
-got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
-consisted of men/women and blacks/whites
Montgomery Bus Boycott
-happened after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus
-Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses
-After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal
-bus company was losing money
Rosa Parks
-United States civil rights leader
-refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery
-triggered the national civil rights movement
-led to a boycott
Congress of racial equality
-made up of mainly WWII Veterans
-civil rights organization
-famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity
-leading to the passing of civil rights legislation
-founded by James Farmer
-Southern Christian Leadership Conference
-churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement
-led by MLK Jr.
-was a success
-(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination
-they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
-started in colleges
Ella Baker
-leader of the SCLC
-urged student leaders who had encouraged sit-ins to create their own organization
-more of a behind the scenes civil rights and human activist
James Farmer
-WWII Veteran
-Created CORE
-Created Freedom Rides to desegregate inter-state transportation
Jackie Robinson
-first African American player in the major league of baseball
-His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans
-had to keep calm because there was lots of hatred on the field
Martin Luther King Jr.
-Lead the boycott
-Arrested and sent to jail
-Helped desegregate the bus system
-Inspired the civil rights movement
-Created the SCLC
Freedom Rides
-rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
-wanted to desegregate bus stations
-led to violence and caused Kennedy administration to become more involved
Freedom Summer
-A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi
-up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters
-met with resistance by KKK and other groups
Role of JFK
-Alabama city against equal rights
-peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police
-Where MLK organized non-violent protests
-very segregated city
-a town in central Alabama on the Alabama river
-known for the 1965 Voting Rights Movement and its marches to Montgomery
-led by MLK
-police attacked them
-protests by black college students
-took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served
-in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South
-Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Schwerner, Goodman, Chaney
-civil rights activists
-murdered by KKK
-got national attention because 2 were white
Stokely Carmichael
-a black civil rights activist in the 1960's
-Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
-He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude
-urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power
Civil Rights Act 1964/65
-made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal
-gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights
-included desegregation of schools and public places
-gave federal protection to black voters which allowed many more to vote and participate in the government
Betty Friedan
-wrote "The Feminine Mystique"
-an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men
-inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement
-president of NOW
-National Organization of Women
-Betty Friedan first president
-wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Pay Act
-required in all federal postions, women had to be paid equally
-only applied to federal government
-helped women attain equality