172 terms

1617 Islamic Empires, Absolutism and Asia

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What term means "the right to rule given by God?
Divine Right
How do monarchs get their power?
Birth
What does "absolute" mean in the term absolute monarch?
Controls errthing
What was Louis XIV's nickname?
Sun King
Why did Louis XIV build his new palace outside of Paris in Versailles?
Didn't want poor to see it
Before the Glorious Revolution, absolute monarchs said that they received their power from ________ therefore, the people shouldn't complain about how they ruled.
God
Which English war was fought between the king's cavaliers and Cromwell's roundheads?
ENG Civil War
What did Cromwell end up doing after overthrowing the king?
Became a dictator (Lord Protector)
What role did the Mongols play in Russia's late development?
They had no culture and kept RUS in dark ages
Which leader first tried to Westernize Russia and brought about what some call Russia's Renaissance?
Peter the Great (Poser)
Name three ways that Peter the Great tried to make Russia more like France and England.
Beards, Ballet, Moved the capital to St. Petersburg
Which event led to the end of Divine Right in England when Parliament chose the monarchs instead of God?
Glorious Revolution
Who is the best example of an absolute monarch?
Louis XIV (14th)
Where is Louis XVI from?
France
How did Louis XVI leave France?
Bankrupt
Where did Louis XVI put his awesome new palace?
Versailles
How do you say Versailles?
ver-SIE
What is the name of the famous hallway in the Palace at Versailles?
Hall of Mirrors
Which absolute monarch was the queen of England?
Elizabeth
What was Elizabeth known as because she never married?
The Virgin Queen
How did Elizabeth increase the culture in England?
She paid for Shakespeare's plays and built him a theater
What was the name of Shakespeare's theater?
The Globe Theater
Who won when Elizabeth's English fleet fought the Spanish Armada?
The English fleet
Who was the absolute monarch of Spain when they were taking all that fat gold and silver out of Latin America?
Phillip II
What happened when all that fat gold and silver made its way back to Spain?
It caused inflation (prices of goods to go up) and almost destroyed the Spanish economy.
What is it called when a king or queen is crowned?
Coronation
Who coronated kings and queens in Catholic countries?
The Pope
How does divine right keep a king or queen in power?
If the people go against the monarch, they are going against God, and that's dumb because God will make them pay for it!
What is the term for an absolute monarch that rules fairly?
Enlightened despot (despot means ruler)
How did enlightened despots increase literacy in their kingdoms?
They paid for authors to write classical books
Who were the cavaliers in the English Civil War?
Supporters of the king
Who were the roundheads in the English Civil War?
Supporters of parliament
Who won the English Civil War?
Roundheads
Why did the roundheads think the king had gone to far?
He raised taxes on the poor without the consent of the parliament. This was a direct violation of the Magna Carta
What did the Magna Carta say?
That the king couldn't raise taxes without the consent of the people.
What is ironic about Cromwell and the English Civil War?
He fought to take absolute power away from the king and give it to the parliament, but ended up taking absolute power for himself afterwards.
What does tsar mean in Russian?
Caesar (king)
Who was the first tsar?
Ivan the Terrible
What was the name of the Russian dynasty that took over in the 1600s and ruled until the 1900s?
Romanovs
Who was the first Romanov tsar?
Peter the Great
Where did Peter the Great move the capital of Russia?
To St. Petersburg so he could be closer to the sea and closer to Western Europe.
What does westernize mean?
Make things more like the west (Western Europe like England and France)
What country is the center of the Ottoman Empire?
Turkey
What is a janissary?
A highly trained Ottoman solider that was taken as a slave when he was a kid
Why were janissaries Christians?
Its against Muslim law to take another Muslim as a slave, but its cool to take Christians as slaves.
What super-important Christian city was taken over by the Muslims in the 1500s?
Constantinople
What name did the Ottoman Empire change Constantinople to?
Istanbul
In what European city was the Ottoman Empire finally defeated? If they would have won there, they may have kept marching west and took over all of Europe.
Vienna, Austria
What is the name for the leader of the Ottoman Empire?
sultan
Why was the Ottoman empire called the gunpowder empire?
Had advanced guns and were skilled at using them
How did the Ottomans treat non muslims they took over?
tolerant
What could you do if you were in the Ottoman Empire and you weren't a Muslim?
You could pay a tax (head tax)
Who was the leader of the Ottomans at their height?
Suleyman
What modern country is where most of the Safavid Empire was?
Iran
Who was the founder of the Safavid Empire?
Shah Ismail
The Safavids were _________ muslims while the Ottomans were ________________ muslims
shiah, sunni
What do Shiah Muslims believe?
that the caliph related to Muhammad (Shiah ain't kin, Shiah can't be caliph)
What did the Safavids and the Mughals call their leaders?
shah
With whom did the Safavids fight?
Ottomans
Which dynasty overthrew the Mongols in China?
Ming: the most organized and strongest dynasty ever in CHN
Name one way that dynasty helped China.
Made Great Wall
What was the name of the new capital of the Ming?
Beijing (north capital)
Which European country came and offended the Chinese?
Portuguese. They told CHN to burn Buddhist shrines for Jesus.
What is one reason the Ming Dynasty fell? There are three.
High taxes on ppl/weak leaders/droughts and floods killed crops
How did the last Ming emperor die?
Hanged self in the palace garden.
Which dynasty took over after the Ming? What were their people called?
Qing (CHING). Manchu ppl from around Korea. Outsiders w/ shaved heads and ponytails.
How would you describe China's interaction with other countries through trade?
Thought their stuff was better. Trading was a favor they did for others. Stingy, isolated, snobby.
Name two reasons China didn't become a Commercial Capitalist country like Europe. (There are three)
Trade was control of gov. ppl were less independent. Looked down on merchants.
Chinese society is organized around the _____________.
Family. Its more important the individual.
Name two ways that women were treated poorly in China.
Kept in house/no edu/no posessions/no divorce/footbinding
What was the name of the Chinese city within a city where only nobles could go?
Imperial (Forbidden City) in Beijing.
What is the difference between Kabuki theater and Noh theater?
Kabuki - wild fast dancing, face paint Noh - very slow, small movements, masks
Why was Korea called "The Hermit Kingdom"? ridiculously
Kept themselves isolated from other countries.
Which leader tried to westernize Russia?
Peter the Great
Where did the Ottoman Empire rule at its height?
The eastern part of the Mediterranean (Turkey, Greece, Egypt and more)
What was Suleyman's greatest accomplishment?
Making the Ottoman Empire strong and stabile
Why was Suleyman sometimes called "Suleyman the Lawgiver"?
Because he made a fair law code
Why did the Ottoman Empire start to fall?
It became corrupt in the late 1800s and did not become modern or industrialized. This led many parts of it to break free and become their own countries.
What generally causes any empire to start to fall?
Corruption which leads to the rich paying less taxes and the poor paying more. The poor start to revolt.
Which empire did the Ottoman Empire war with? Why did they war with them?
The Safavids, over territory and disagreements over the Shiah/Sunni split.
What do Sunni Muslims believe?
That anyone can be caliph (leader of all Muslims). "Sunni days"
What did the Safavid rulers do to people who weren't Shiah Muslim in their empire.
Told them to convert or be executed.
Where was the Mughal Empire?
In northern India
Which Muslim empires were gunpowder empires?
Ottomans, Mughals and Safavids
How did Akbar treat Hindu in India?
He was nice to them. Married a Hindu lady. Paid to have shrines built.
How did Akbar's grandson, Arangzeb treat Hindus in India?
Forced them to convert to Islam, banned sati, banned dancing and alcohol, banned child marriage (a-WRONG-zeb)
How did the Hindus handle their mistreatment by the Mughals under Arangzeb?
They started to revolt and eventually let the English traders into India. Later, those English traders are going to take over all of India.
Who built the Taj Mahal? Why was it built?
Shah Jahan built it as a tomb for his wife who died.
Which Chinese Dynasty was ruled by the Mongols?
Yuan
Which Chinese Dynasty overthrew the Mongols?
Ming
What does Ming mean?
Pure (Chinese)
What is ethnocentrism?
Thinking your culture is better than anyone else's
What does "Middle Kingdom" mean?
It was how China referred to themselves. They thought they were the literal center of the universe.
Who could enter the Forbidden City?
Only high-ranking government officials
What are the Chinese Dynasties in order? Remember the song.
Shang, Zhou (Joe), Qin (Chin), Han
Sui (Sway), Tang, Song (Sung)
Yuan, Ming, Qing (Ching), Republic
Mao Zedong, De!
Which two dynasties in China were run by outsiders? Which outsiders ran each?
Yuan ran by Mongols and Qing ran by Manchurians
What is the name of the Qing hairstyle that everyone had to have? It was a shaved head with a braided ponytail.
Queue
What kind of pottery is associated with Ming China?
Blue and white porcelain called "china"
Who is the most important Chinese person who ever lived?
Confucius
Why is Confucius so important?
His teachings are the foundation of Chinese family, society and government. Says they should all be ruled like a family where the dad is in charge and everyone respects the dad.
What is the most important thing to a person in China?
Their family
Why was footbinding done in China?
because small feet were considered attractive
Which girls had their feet bound?
elite
How was Japan before it was unified?
A lot of small warring states (individual countries)
Who unified Japan?
Tokugawa Ieyasu
What is the feudal system?
When peasants are forced to work the land for the lords. The peasants can't leave. They are bound to the land.
What country shares a lot of its culture with Japan?
China
Describe Japan's social structure.
Very strict. People from different classes can't get married.
How are merchants viewed in Japan and China?
As very shady and stingy. They benefit off the hard work of others. They are viewed as lower than peasants.
Who are the "outcasts" in Japan?
The Eta
How were women treated in China and Japan?
They were controlled by their husbands. They had no legal rights and their husbands spoke for them in court like they were children.
What is the name for the famous type of poetry from Japan?
Haikus
How many syllables are in each line of a haiku?
five in the first line, seven in the next line, five in the last line
What kind of Japanese theater is really exciting with face paint, lots of dancing and was made to entertain the lower classes?
Kabuki
Which kind of Japanese theater is really boring with masks and small movements? It was made for the upper classes.
Noh
Which country in China was called the "Hermit Kingdom" because it was very isolated from outsiders?
Korea
What percentage of Muslims are Sunni? What percentage are Shiah?
Sunni = 90%
Shiah = 10%
What is the name for the pattern of rising and falling empires in China?
Dynastic cycle
What was the name of the Chinese sea explorer under the Ming Dynasty?
Zheng He
Where did Zheng He explore?
All around the Indian Ocean as far as Madagascar
List three ways Zheng He was better than Columbus.
He knew where he was going, he had bigger and more ships, he explored much further, he explored almost 100 years earlier
Why is Columbus more well known than Zheng He?
Columbus really changed the way the world works and had a bigger impact on the Americas. Also, we tend to focus more on Europeans because of Eurocentrism.
What were Zheng He's ships called?
Junks
Why did Zheng He explore?
Just to find cool stuff and bring it back to the emperor.
I
1
2
II
3
III
IV
4
V
5
VI
6
7
VII
8
VIII
IX
9
X
10
C
100
M
1000
50
L
500
D
XLIV
44
XXIII
23
XCVII
97
CCXIX
219
MMCM
2900
MCXI
1111
159
CLIX
48
XLVIII
22
XXII
CI
101
MMM
3000
14
XIV
18
XVIII
20
XX
32
XXXII
DII
502
First Chinese dynasty.
Shang
Second Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Shang and before the Qin.
Zhao (JOE)
Third Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Zhao and before the Han.
Qin (CHIN)
Fourth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Qin and before the Sui.
Han
Fifth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Han and before Tang.
Sui
Sixth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Sui and before the Sung.
Tang
Seventh Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Tang and before the Yuan.
Sung
Eighth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Sung and before the Ming.
Yuan
Ninth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Yuan and before the Qing.
Ming
Tenth Chinese dynasty. Comes after the Ming and before the Republic.
Qing (CHING)
Comes after the Qing Dynasty.
Republic
Comes after the Republic.
Mao Zedong
Comes after Mao Zedong.
De (Deng Xaoping)
Dynasty known for Oracle Bones.
Shang
Dynasty known for the Mandate of Heaven.
Zhao
Dynasty where China got its name.
Qin
Dynasty known for their trade on the Silk Roads with Rome.
Han
The geographically largest Chinese dynasty. ___________! You big!
Tang