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cross section anatomy female pelvis
Terms in this set (149)
formed by sacrum and 2 os coxae bones
bony landmark separating abdominal and pelvic cavity
bladder and reproductive organs
what three bones make up os coxae (innominate bones)
largest most superior part of the os coxae
lower anterior portion of the acetabulum
inferior portion of the os coxae
the boundary line for the abdominal pelvis is?
true pelvis is divided by the pelvic diaphragm into
main pelvic cavity
pelvic inlet is anterior or posterior?
pelvic outlet is posterior or anterior?
perineum region is divided into 2 triangles
posterior triangle is what? and contains what?
contains: anal canal/sphincter muscles
anterior triangle is what? and contains what?
contains: opening for the urethra and vagina
pelvic diaphragm primary muscles
levator ani muscles
what are the 3 levator ani muscles?
(most important muscles of the pelvic floor)
LT and RT coccugeus
attaches to coccyx bone
(most posterior muscles in the pelvis)
what muscles provide support for pelvic contents and contracts to move material out?
levator ani and coccygeus muscles
anterior abdominal wall muscles
rectus abdominis muscles
external and internal obliques
outer lateral portion of the abdomen? (muscle)
external and internal obliques
posterior abdominal muscles
psoas and iliacus muscle join to form what muscle
(most important muscle for flexing the leg)
pelvic wall muscles consist of
located posteriorly behind the uterus
lateral to bladder
what viscera does the pelvic cavity contain
internal reproductive organs
immediately posterior to the pubic symphysis
superior surface of bladder
covered by peritoneum
loops of ileum and sigmoid colon rest on it
posterior surface of bladder
close to the anterior vagina
inferior surface of the bladder
in contact with the pelvic floor muscles
3 layers of the bladder wall
inner: TRANSITIONAL CELL EPITHELIUM
the neck of the bladder is continuous with?
anterior to the vagina
Empty bladder is found completely in the
As the bladder fills the superior aspect will project into the
Terminal part of large intestine
Follows anteroposterior curve of sacrum and coccyx (sacral flexure)
Female reproductive system is responsible for
Producing sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone) and ova
Protecting and supporting a developing embryo
Principle organs located within the pelvis
Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes)
Located in anterior pelvic cavity
Sits in between the bladder (anteriorly) and the rectum (posteriorly)
Make card for normal variants
3 regions of the uterus
Fundus of the uterus
Superior rounded portion
Containing the cornua
Point at which the Fallopian tubes enter the uterus
Body (corpus) of the uterus
Mid portion of the uterus
Cervix of the uterus
The narrower, inferior segment
Contains the cervical canal
Runs from superior internal os to inferior external os
Between body and upper cervix
Between lower cervix and upper vagina
Walls of the uterus are comprised of 3 layers
Innermost layer of the uterus
Endometrium is comprised of 2 layers
Functional (superficial) layer
Basal (deep) layer
What is the layer that sheds with menstruation?
Functional (superficial) layer
What layer does not shed with menstruation?
Basal (deep) layer
-rebuilds the functional layer
What is the middle layer of the uterus
Muscle layer/ thickest portion of the wall
What is the outer layer of the uterus
(Consist of a serous membrane formed by the peritoneum and Covers the fundus and posterior uterus)
Uterine vasculature arterial
Uterine artery which is a branch off of the internal iliac artery
Uterine vasculature venous drainage
Uterine veins that empty into internal iliac veins
Does they uterus decrease or increase after menopause
what ligament helps to hold the uterus in place
what ligament extend laterally from the uterine cornu to the anterolateral wall?
what ligaments extend from upper lateral walls of the cervix and attaches to the anterior surface of the sacrum? and holds cervix in place?
(is posterior to the sacrum)
what ligaments extend from the posterior aspect of the lateral walls of the cervix and vagina, and attach at the lateral walls of the pelvis?
lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments
what ligament drapes from the anterosuperior uterus, over the top (fundus)
what does the broad ligament contain known as the mesosalpinx
found at the superior broad ligament covering
the bulk of the fallopian tubes
ovarian artery and vein
what are the two spaces the broad ligament creates as it drapes over the uterus?
anterior cul de sac (vesicouteral pouch/recess)
posterior cul de sac (pouch of douglas)
what is the uterine position when the fundus is tipped anteriorly?
what is the uterine position when the fundus it tipped anteriorly even more and the uterus is bent making the cervix in line with the fundus?
what is the uterine position when the uterus is tipped posteriorly toward the rectum?
what is the uterine position when the uterus is bent backward and tipped posteriorly making the fundus in line with the cervix?
what is the most common uterine position?
anteverted and anteflexed postion tipped anteriorly over the bladder
what divides the pelvis into anterior and posterior pouches
anterior broad ligament is know as what space and is located?
anterior cul de sac (uterovesicle pouch/ recess)
located between anterior uterus and posterior bladder
posterior broad ligament is know as what space and is located?
posterior cul de sac (uterorectal pouch/recess)
located between posterior uterus and anterior rectum
location of the retropubis space?
located between the posterior pubic symphysis and anterior bladder
the retropubis is also know as? and contains?
space of retzius
contains: extraperitoneal fat and connective tissue
uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)
extend laterally from the uterine cornea to the ovaries
supported by the broad upper ligament sitting at the superior aspect of the broad ligament
what are the segments of a fallopian tube
interstitial portion (intramural wall)
what is the segment of the fallopian tube that passes through the uterine wall?
what is the segment of the fallopian tube that is narrow and just outside of the uterus?
what is the segment of the fallopian tube that is the longest and most coiled portion of the tubes and is the site where fertilization occurs most often?
what is the segment of the fallopian tube that is funnel shaped and opens into the peritoneal cavity?
what are the finger like extensions of the infundibulum called and what do they do?
they sweep the ovum up into the fallopian tube
what is the only organ in the peritoneal cavity without visceral peritoneum covering them?
where are the ovaries located?
on either side of the posterior uterus
what do ovaries consist of?
outer cortex and inner medulla
the inner medulla of a ovary contains?
vessels, lymphatics and nerves
the outer cortex of a ovary contains?
what is the dominant follicle that generally matures over all they other follicles that eventualy go away?
what happens to the graafian follicle if there is no pregnancy?
what happens to a graafian follicle with pregnancy?
can turn into a corpus lutum cyst and is temporarily an endocrine structure
corpus lutum produces high progesterone
what does the graafian follicle do at ovulation?
it will rupture releasing the ovum into the fallopian tube
the outside of the ovary is covered by a fibrous connective tissue white capsule known as?
the tunica albuginea
attaches the inferior ovary to the lateral aspect of the uterus at the cornea
suspensory ligaments (infundibulopelvic ligaments)
attach superior ovary to lateral pelvic wall
a portion of the broad ligament also attaches to the anterior ovary at the ovarian hilum known as?
mesovarian which is a double layer of peritoneum that surrounds the ovary
what are the functions of the ovaries
production of ova
production and secretion of estrogen and progesterone
responsible for development and maintenance of female characteristics and reproductive organs it is produced by specialized cells in the walls of the ovarian follicles
responsible for uterine changes in preparation for pregnancy
causes thickening of the endometrium
and a decrease in uterine muscle contraction
what is an endocrine structure that arises from graafian follicle after ovulation has occurred?
progesterone produced by the corpus luteum
what releases an ovum during ovulation?
graafian follicle is the dominant follicle
measurement in volume of an ovary
what is the arterial blood supply for an ovary
ovary has dual blood supply
ovarian artery and 2nd supply comes from branches off the uterine artery
t/f ovarian artery comes directly off the abdominal aorta as the gonadal artery
where doe the branches off the uterine artery arise from
from they internal iliac arteries
whist is the venous drainage of an ovary?
ovaries are drained by the ovarian veins
the right ovarian veins drains directly into the?
the left ovarian vein drains into the?
left renal vein
extends from the cervix to the external vaginal orifice
surrounds the external cervical (cervix) os like a ring anchoring the vagina to lower cervix
what are the 4 segments that the fornix is dived into?
2 lateral fornices
Ovarian encasement containing an immature ovum. Site of ova maturation
patient lies on back
knees are bent/thighs apart
feet are at the same level above patient hips
(often feet in stirrups)
FSH and LH
what is released in days 1-14 and initiates follicular development?
what is releases in days 1-14 and causes ovulation to occur?
what happens on day 12-13 and 10-12 hours prior to ovulation?
serge in LH levels
what day does ovulation occur
what is they temporary endocrine structure formed from the remnants of the ruptured graafian follicle?
what does the corpus luteum secrete to support a possible pregnancy?
estrogen and progesterone
what hormone does the corpus luteum secrete at a higher level during pregnancy?
what happened to the corpus luteum if fertilization does not occur?
it degenerates 9-11 day after ovulation.
what happens to estrogen and progesterone when fertilization doesn't occur and corpus luteum degenerates?
levels decrease and the endomestrium sheds mensis begins
what does estrogen do after ovulation and what produces it?
produced by the follicle
rebuilds the functional layer after menses
what happens to corpus luteum if fertilization does occur?
it remains active for about three months then they placenta takes over
what hormone maintains the corpus luteum when fertilization occurs?
what cells produce HCG?
what is the sonographic presentation of the endometrium during menses?
endometrium will appear as a thin line or structure
will measure on average 2-3mm
(may see fluid or blood debris)
what is the sonographic presentation of the endometrium during proliferative stage?
endometrium will thicken between 4-8 mm
just before ovulation it will be 6-10 mm
(three line sign)
what is the three line sign?
during the proliferative stage the endometrium thickens to 6-10mm and you see three lines the
what is the sonographic presentation of the endometrium during the secratory phase?
the endometrium continues to thicken 7-14mm
becomes echogenic as it thickens and we lose the 3 line sign
what happens at the end of the secretory phase to the endometrium if there is no pregnancy?
goes back to menses
what is the size of the endometrium in a post menopausal woman?
5mm or less (unless on hormone therapy)
In a post menopausal woman, if the endometrium is greater than 5mm what could this indicate?
hypertrophy (overgrowth of tissue)
how is estrogen in the first half of the cycle?
highest in the first half of the cycle days 1-14
promotes growth of endometrium levels peak near ovulation
how is estrogen during second half of cycle?
days 14-28 the levels gradually decrease
how is progesterone during the first half of the cycle?
levels are lower days 1-14
prepares the endometrium
how is progesterone during second half of cycle?
rise after ovulation days 14-18
days 22-26 levels peak
what does progesterone inhibit during a pregnancy?
contraction of the myometrium so you don't have premature contractions
what is the the ovaries stage in the first half of the cycle days 1-14?
the development of the graafian follicle
what is the ovaries stage in the second half of the cycle days 15-28?
concerns formation of the corpus luteum
what is the endometriums stage in the first half of the cycle days 1-14?
what is going on in the proliferative stage of the cycle days 1-14?
responds to the follicular stage of ovary concerns growth of the endometrium
high estrogen levels
parenchyma glandular tissue and new vessels develop
what is the endometrium stage in the first half of the cycle days 15-28?
what is going on in the secretory stage of the cycle days 15-28?
corresponds to luteal stage of ovary.
endometrium continues to further thicken
endometrial glands release fluid containing glucose that will support a possible implantation
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