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Social Problems Chapter 3: World Population and Global Inequality

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Population Growth
-Currently the world population is over 6.8 billion people
-the world population is increasing 80 million annually

-It is estimated the world population will reach 9 billion people by 2050

-99 percent of population growth occurs in the less-developed nations
Estimated World Population Growth
1830: when us reached 1 billion
1930: when us reached 2 billion in population
1960: 3 billion
2011: 7 billion
Doubling times:
Developed world : 548 years for population to double
Developing world: 40 years for population to double
Doubling time for cites: 13.5

***population is increasing at 1.2 a year
Consequences of Population Growth
The greater the proportion of a given population living in poverty, the higher the fertility rate

Less-developed nations already have problems with poverty, hunger, and infectious disease

Strain on the resources of housing, fuel, food, and medical services
Fertility Rate
The average number of children born to each woman
-For a population to stay stable the fertillity rate needs to be 2.1
-1.6 in developed countries
-2.8 in developing countries
Three Ways to Reduce Fertility
Economic development

Family-planning programs

Social change
demographic transition
process whereby a country moves from relatively high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates

-preindustrial(high birth and death rates)>transitional(more births than deaths; china)>industrial(low birth and death rates;US)>postindustrial(death greater than or equal to births; Germany)
3 stages of demographic transition
1. Agrarian Stages
2. Transition
3. End Stage

***The developing world is in the stage of II since population explosion is occurring in the developing world
4 levels of technological advancement
Stage 1- preindustrial, agrarian societies that have high birth rates, periodic disease and plague cancel out any increases in births
Stage 2- begins transition- death rates fall b/c of higher living standards; birth rates are still high so population increases
Stage 3- mature industrial economy- birth rate falls in line with death rate; population increase slows because of contraceptives and women who have careers
Stage 4- postindustrial economy where birth and death rates are stable so there is not natural increase in population size
Modern demographic transitions
- A three-stage pattern of population change occuring as societies industrialize and urbanize, resulting ultimately in a low and stable population growth
population pyramids
these graphs show that more developed countries have fewer young people, and less developed countries have more young people and less old people
city growth
- cities are growing faster than rural areas
- problems of survival in cities is increased
crude death rate
the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population; the lower a nation's mortality, the faster its population increases— for the world as a whole this is 8
crude birth rate
the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population; based on the entire population, not just women in their childbearing years— measures society's fertility— for the world as a whole, this is 21
US population growth
drop in TFR, rate of population growth has slowed, population still growing and not leveling off, fourfold increase since 1900, changes in lifestyle in the US during the 20th century, highest consumption rate of resources, baby boom 1940's-1960's, 40% of population growth in US is due to immigration
top 5 most populous countries
CHINA
INDIA
USA
INDONESIA
BRAZIL
Most Livable Countries
1. Iceland

*** US is 12th on list
Least Livable Countries
1. Sierra Leone
Third World Countries
- undeveloping or developing countries
Know the reasons for hunger in the 3rd World
1. Rapid population growth
2. Shrinking of the productive land
3. Lack of money to modernize
4. Natural disasters
5. Political economy of the world
a) world food supply
b) who controls the land?
c) investment decisions (cash crops vs. food to feed the hungry)
d) food surplus and market price
Global inequality is massive
-Richest 2% of adults own more that 1/2 of world's household wealth;
-poorest 1/2 of world own 1%;
-1.2B live in wealthy countries; 5.8B live in poor countries.
extreme poverty
living on less than 1.25 a day
-The World Bank defines the global poverty line as living on less than $1.25 per day
-Extreme poverty is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa
2010 US Poverty Rate
15.1% = 46.2 million people
What is the poverty line?
$22,314 for family of 4
$11,139 for single individual

***1.4 billion people live below this line
Family Planning
$8 B to make birth control readily available globally; national governments (India/China) have had some success in reducing fertility rates.
-started in the 1960s
malnutrition
9 million people die of malnutrition each year

1 in 6 people are malnourished

1 in 3 people are food insecure

-1 billion people in the world are obese and the US is one of the few nations the has the highest level of obesity
-1.3 billion people are malnourished (do not get enough food or a balanced diet )
chronic malnutrition
-results in high infant mortality rates, shorter life expectancy, stunting of physical and mental capacities, lack of safe water and unsanitary conditions, AIDS pandemic.
-widespread in less developed countries
Food Supply
-The world's agriculture produces enough to feed 10 billion people
-80% of grains produced worldwide are being fed to livestock for meat production
Green Revolution
in 1960 when the wealth countries met in Mexico City and came up the the program that rich countries would provide poor countries the supply and money to provide for irrigation systems
less developed countries
-middle-income countries
-have relatively low gross national income per capita
-economies are much simpler, relying on a few agricultural products.
Pandemic
A worldwide epidemic or a disease that can cross many borders
Epidemic disease
appears quickly, kills most and once again disappears
HIV/AIDS world epidemic/pandemic
is the worst epidemic/ pandemic in human history, it surpassed the black death. 30 million have died and 34 million are living with HIV.

-1981: discovered HIV Aids, first located in Congo ( 200 men were infected by one strain )
-78% of HIV cases are in the Sahara in Africa
-This disease also accounts for the high number of orphans in Africa
-95% of HIV infected people die
Current Life Expectancy in the US
78 years old
Sickness and Disease
-1 in 10 babies born in poorer countries do not make it to their first birthdays
-Vitamin deficiences can cause goiter or soft bones
Life Chances
The chances throughout one's life cycle to live and experience the good things in life
Colony
-A territory controlled by a powerful country that exploits the land and the people for its own benefit
-1914: 70% of world lived in a colony; legacy of land and labor exploitation for powerful countries still in place.
Colonialism
The process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations.
- started a 2 class society
Consequences of Colonialism
eliminated the indigenous cultures, made the colonized areas dependent on the controlling countries, encourage higher birth rates due to it being agricultural making people needed to work the area.
Transnational Corporations
-Control the world economy; where to locate, working conditions, etc; Most profits channeled back to the US elite.
- A profit-oriented company engaged in business activities in more than one nation
Concentration of Misery in Cities
-There are five cities in the developing world with populations over 20 million.
Consequences of the U.S. selling arms to the developing world
all the US cares about is the profit even though they are being sold to opposing people groups who are contributing to wars are terrorist acts
- number 1 seller for arms is the US accounting for 68% of weapons sold
- The U.S. is the leader in global arms sales ($18.6 billion in 2000, 2/3 to developing countries
- Consequences
Corporate Dumping
- The exporting of goods that have either been banned or not approved for sale in the US because they are dangerous
- examples are toxic waste, chemical pesticides, trash
3 reasons why Corporate Dumping is Undesirable
1. poses serious health hazards to developing countries
2. Disregard of the US multinational corporations for their workers and their consumers in foreign lands contributes to anti-US feelings
3. boomerrang effect which hazardous products sold by US often come back to the US and impose health problems

**Example is that US imports 1/4 of fruits and veggies which are contaminated with toxic chemicals
military spending
- a lot of 3rd world countries spend their money on this to protect themselves
-weakens economy
societal changes
- strategy to reduce population growth
- this comes to show that Catholic countries can have low fertility rates since they allow the use of contraceptives
- increasing education lowers birth rates and getting woman into the work force also does so
- economic hard times also lower birth rates
life expectancy
-average number of years individuals born in a given year can be expected to live
- most shorter life expectancy in developing countries
--ranges from 47 in Malawi to 83 in Japan.
-In 12 countries, primarily in Africa, life expectancy is less than 50
New Slavery
-Estimated 27 million slaves in the world today
Extreme poverty sometimes forces people into slavery.
-Causes:
1) poverty (push factor)
- debt bondage

2) International traffic in slaves (demand factor)
- prostitution
- bonded labor in factories and sweatshops

1 millionn in the U.S. trapped in slave-like conditions (John Hopkins University study)
debt
- the gap between the rich and poor countries continues to increase
-the national debt is 22.3 trillion dollars
- the US debt is 19.3 trillion dollars
-poor countries spend 40% of their income on interest of foreign debt
- in the partial debt relief plan the US pays 4%
- Meetig basic nutrition and health needs of the poorest people would cost $13 billion
World System Theory (Dependency Theory)
A model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones.
exploitation
- rich nations exploit poorer countries by taking away their resources and labor
-crops were planted for the benefit of the consumers
- population growth was encouraged since the consumer needed a low-cost labor