Chapter 7 - Cell Structure and Function
Terms in this set (40)
A collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life.
The idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
The center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, the structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities.
An organism whose cells contain nuclei.
A single celled organism lacking a nucleus.
A specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.
The material inside the cell membrane - not including the nucleus.
The layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.
The granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
A threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
The small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.
A small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.
An internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.
A stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
A cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.
A cell organism that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
A cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
An organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
A network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.
One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope.
The thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
The strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
A double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes.
The mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.
The process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution.
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
When the concentration of two solutions is the same.
When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
When comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
The movement of a specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
An energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
The process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane.
The process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
The process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment.
The process by which a cell releases large amounts of material.
The separate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms.
A group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
A group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
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